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Title: Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and combat land degradation and desertification?

Abstract

There is a clear need for transformative change in the land management and food production sectors to address the global land challenges of climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, combatting land degradation and desertification, and delivering food security (referred to hereafter as “land challenges”). We assess the potential for 40 practices to address these land challenges and find that: Nine options deliver medium to large benefits for all four land challenges. A further two options have no global estimates for adaptation, but have medium to large benefits for all other land challenges. Five options have large mitigation potential (>3 Gt CO2eq/year) without adverse impacts on the other land challenges. Five options have moderate mitigation potential, with no adverse impacts on the other land challenges. Sixteen practices have large adaptation potential (>25 million people benefit), without adverse side effects on other land challenges. Most practices can be applied without competing for available land. However, seven options could result in competition for land. A large number of practices do not require dedicated land, including several land management options, all value chain options, and all risk management options. Four options could greatly increase competition for land if applied at a large scale, thoughmore » the impact is scale and context specific, highlighting the need for safeguards to ensure that expansion of land for mitigation does not impact natural systems and food security. A number of practices, such as increased food productivity, dietary change and reduced food loss and waste, can reduce demand for land conversion, thereby potentially freeing-up land and creating opportunities for enhanced implementation of other practices, making them important components of portfolios of practices to address the combined land challenges.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16]; ORCiD logo [13];  [6];  [17]; ORCiD logo [18] more »;  [19];  [20];  [21] « less
  1. Institute of Biological &, Environmental Sciences University of Aberdeen Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Joint Global Change Research Institute College Park MD (United States)
  3. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
  4. The University of the West Indies, Mona (Jamaica)
  5. Industrial Ecology Programme Department of Energy and Process Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)
  6. European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)
  7. Yu. A. Izrael Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russia)
  8. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Hanoi (Vietnam)
  9. Department of Geography Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda)
  10. Department of Human Ecology Rutgers University New Brunswick. NJ (United States)
  11. IFPRI, Washington, DC (United States)
  12. Center for Global Environmental Research National Institute for Environmental Studies Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
  13. French National Institute for Agricultural, Environment and Food Research (INRA), Paris (France)
  14. National Agricultural Technology Institute (INTA) Natural Resources Research Center (CIRN) Institute of Soils Ciudad Autónoma, de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  15. Institute of Biological & Environmental Sciences University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
  16. Department of Livestock and Industrial Resources, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda)
  17. School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)
  18. Department of Environmental Sciences University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Climate Focus, Berlin (Germany)
  19. NSW Department of Primary Industries DPI Agriculture Livestock Industries Centre, University of New England, Armidale NSW (Australia)
  20. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Atmospheric Environmental Research (KIT, IMK‐IFU), Garmisch‐Partenkirchen (Germany); Institute of Geography University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  21. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Atmospheric Environmental Research (KIT, IMK‐IFU), Garmisch‐Partenkirchen (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1625880
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; Biodiversity & Conservation; Environmental Sciences & Ecology

Citation Formats

Smith, Pete, Calvin, Katherine, Nkem, Johnson, Campbell, Donovan, Cherubini, Francesco, Grassi, Giacomo, Korotkov, Vladimir, Le Hoang, Anh, Lwasa, Shuaib, McElwee, Pamela, Nkonya, Ephraim, Saigusa, Nobuko, Soussana, Jean‐Francois, Taboada, Miguel Angel, Manning, Frances C., Nampanzira, Dorothy, Arias‐Navarro, Cristina, Vizzarri, Matteo, House, Jo, Roe, Stephanie, Cowie, Annette, Rounsevell, Mark, and Arneth, Almut. Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and combat land degradation and desertification?. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1111/gcb.14878.
Smith, Pete, Calvin, Katherine, Nkem, Johnson, Campbell, Donovan, Cherubini, Francesco, Grassi, Giacomo, Korotkov, Vladimir, Le Hoang, Anh, Lwasa, Shuaib, McElwee, Pamela, Nkonya, Ephraim, Saigusa, Nobuko, Soussana, Jean‐Francois, Taboada, Miguel Angel, Manning, Frances C., Nampanzira, Dorothy, Arias‐Navarro, Cristina, Vizzarri, Matteo, House, Jo, Roe, Stephanie, Cowie, Annette, Rounsevell, Mark, & Arneth, Almut. Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and combat land degradation and desertification?. United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14878.
Smith, Pete, Calvin, Katherine, Nkem, Johnson, Campbell, Donovan, Cherubini, Francesco, Grassi, Giacomo, Korotkov, Vladimir, Le Hoang, Anh, Lwasa, Shuaib, McElwee, Pamela, Nkonya, Ephraim, Saigusa, Nobuko, Soussana, Jean‐Francois, Taboada, Miguel Angel, Manning, Frances C., Nampanzira, Dorothy, Arias‐Navarro, Cristina, Vizzarri, Matteo, House, Jo, Roe, Stephanie, Cowie, Annette, Rounsevell, Mark, and Arneth, Almut. Sat . "Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and combat land degradation and desertification?". United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14878. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1625880.
@article{osti_1625880,
title = {Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and combat land degradation and desertification?},
author = {Smith, Pete and Calvin, Katherine and Nkem, Johnson and Campbell, Donovan and Cherubini, Francesco and Grassi, Giacomo and Korotkov, Vladimir and Le Hoang, Anh and Lwasa, Shuaib and McElwee, Pamela and Nkonya, Ephraim and Saigusa, Nobuko and Soussana, Jean‐Francois and Taboada, Miguel Angel and Manning, Frances C. and Nampanzira, Dorothy and Arias‐Navarro, Cristina and Vizzarri, Matteo and House, Jo and Roe, Stephanie and Cowie, Annette and Rounsevell, Mark and Arneth, Almut},
abstractNote = {There is a clear need for transformative change in the land management and food production sectors to address the global land challenges of climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, combatting land degradation and desertification, and delivering food security (referred to hereafter as “land challenges”). We assess the potential for 40 practices to address these land challenges and find that: Nine options deliver medium to large benefits for all four land challenges. A further two options have no global estimates for adaptation, but have medium to large benefits for all other land challenges. Five options have large mitigation potential (>3 Gt CO2eq/year) without adverse impacts on the other land challenges. Five options have moderate mitigation potential, with no adverse impacts on the other land challenges. Sixteen practices have large adaptation potential (>25 million people benefit), without adverse side effects on other land challenges. Most practices can be applied without competing for available land. However, seven options could result in competition for land. A large number of practices do not require dedicated land, including several land management options, all value chain options, and all risk management options. Four options could greatly increase competition for land if applied at a large scale, though the impact is scale and context specific, highlighting the need for safeguards to ensure that expansion of land for mitigation does not impact natural systems and food security. A number of practices, such as increased food productivity, dietary change and reduced food loss and waste, can reduce demand for land conversion, thereby potentially freeing-up land and creating opportunities for enhanced implementation of other practices, making them important components of portfolios of practices to address the combined land challenges.},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.14878},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
number = 3,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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Preventing Food Crises Using a Food Policy Approach
journal, November 2009


Promoting human health through forests: overview and major challenges
journal, March 2009

  • Karjalainen, Eeva; Sarjala, Tytti; Raitio, Hannu
  • Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, Vol. 15, Issue 1
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Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health
journal, September 2013

  • West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2009

Crop Insurance, Disaster Payments, and Land Use Change: The Effect of Sodsaver on Incentives for Grassland Conversion
journal, May 2011

  • Claassen, Roger; Cooper, Joseph C.; Carriazo, Fernando
  • Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Vol. 43, Issue 2
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Demand side drivers of global food security
journal, September 2013


Natural climate solutions
journal, October 2017

  • Griscom, Bronson W.; Adams, Justin; Ellis, Peter W.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710465114

Climate benefits of changing diet
journal, February 2009


Budgets of soil erosion and deposition for sediments and sedimentary organic carbon across the conterminous United States
journal, September 2001

  • Smith, S. V.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, R. W.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 15, Issue 3
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Footprint of Research in Desertification Management in China
journal, July 2015

  • Miao, Lijuan; Moore, John C.; Zeng, Fanjiang
  • Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 26, Issue 5
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Climate change mitigation via afforestation, reforestation and deforestation avoidance: and what about adaptation to environmental change?
journal, January 2009


The Potential Role of Tree Diversity in Reducing Shallow Landslide Risk
journal, January 2017


Soil degradation by erosion
journal, January 2001

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  • Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 12, Issue 6
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Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat
journal, February 2006


The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: A review of what we know and what we need to know
journal, July 2009


Repossession through sharing of and access to seeds: different cases and practices
journal, September 2016


Global Coverage of Agricultural Sustainability Standards, and Their Role in Conserving Biodiversity: Certification standards and biodiversity
journal, November 2016

  • Tayleur, Catherine; Balmford, Andrew; Buchanan, Graeme M.
  • Conservation Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 5
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Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets
journal, July 2016

  • Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
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Federal Crop Insurance and the Disincentive to Adapt to Extreme Heat
journal, May 2015

  • Annan, Francis; Schlenker, Wolfram
  • American Economic Review, Vol. 105, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1257/aer.p20151031

Linking freshwater fishery management to global food security and biodiversity conservation
journal, October 2016

  • McIntyre, Peter B.; Reidy Liermann, Catherine A.; Revenga, Carmen
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1521540113

Diversification and ecosystem services for conservation agriculture: Outcomes from pastures and integrated crop–livestock systems
journal, March 2013

  • Sanderson, Matt A.; Archer, David; Hendrickson, John
  • Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Vol. 28, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1742170512000312

Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils
journal, January 2015


Water scarcity assessments in the past, present, and future: REVIEW ON WATER SCARCITY ASSESSMENT
journal, June 2017

  • Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Gosling, Simon N.
  • Earth's Future, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000518

Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector
journal, March 2016

  • Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2925

Management influence on maize-wheat system performance, water productivity and soil biology
journal, September 2015

  • Jat, H. S.; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Ranbir
  • Soil Use and Management, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/sum.12208

Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation
journal, February 2017

  • Howard, Jennifer; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Herr, Dorothée
  • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/fee.1451

Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol
journal, June 2014

  • Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2239

North American Soil Degradation: Processes, Practices, and Mitigating Strategies
journal, March 2015

  • Baumhardt, R.; Stewart, B.; Sainju, U.
  • Sustainability, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3390/su7032936

Negative emissions—Part 2: Costs, potentials and side effects
journal, May 2018

  • Fuss, Sabine; Lamb, William F.; Callaghan, Max W.
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 6
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REDD+, Adaptation, and Sustainable Forest Management: Toward Effective Polycentric Global Forest Governance
journal, August 2013


The land grab and corporate food regime restructuring
journal, April 2012


Importance of food-demand management for climate mitigation
journal, August 2014

  • Bajželj, Bojana; Richards, Keith S.; Allwood, Julian M.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 10
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Managing food price risks and instability in a liberalizing market environment: Overview and policy options
journal, August 2006


Land-use futures in the shared socio-economic pathways
journal, January 2017


Global food security in 2050: the role of agricultural productivity and climate change
journal, March 2014

  • Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.
  • Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol. 58, Issue 4
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Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover
journal, February 2016


Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers
journal, August 2015


Trees, forests and water: Cool insights for a hot world
journal, March 2017


Reducing climate risk for micro-insurance providers in Africa: A case study of Ethiopia
journal, February 2009


Implications for the science of air pollution and health
journal, December 2017


Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss
journal, September 2017


Climate change adaptation in crop production: Beware of illusions
journal, July 2014


Assessing the Impact of Crop Diversification on Farm Poverty in India
journal, August 2015


Mapping the world's degraded lands
journal, February 2015