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Title: Optical waveguiding by atomic entanglement in multilevel atom arrays

Abstract

The optical properties of subwavelength arrays of atoms or other quantum emitters have attracted significant interest recently. For example, the strong constructive or destructive interference of emitted light enables arrays to function as nearly perfect mirrors, support topological edge states, and allow for exponentially better quantum memories. In these proposals, the assumed atomic structure was simple, consisting of a unique electronic ground state. Within linear optics, the system is then equivalent to a periodic array of classical dielectric particles, whose periodicity supports the emergence of guided modes. However, it has not been known whether such phenomena persist in the presence of hyperfine structure, as exhibited by most quantum emitters. Here, we show that waveguiding can arise from rich atomic entanglement as a quantum many-body effect and elucidate the necessary conditions. Our work represents a significant step forward in understanding collective effects in arrays of atoms with realistic electronic structure.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  3. Barcelona Inst. of Science and Technology (BIST), Barcelona (Spain); Inst. Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08015 Barcelona (Spain)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Programmable Quantum Materials (Pro-QM)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO); Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities; State Research Agency; European Regional Development Fund (ERDF); Centres de Recerca de Catalunya (CERCA) Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya; European Research Council (ERC); Agència de Gestió d’Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca; US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
OSTI Identifier:
1625047
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0019443; 2017 SGR 1334; N00014-16-1-2399; N00014-15-1-2761; FA9550-16-1-0323
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 51; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; science & technology - other topics; quantum optics; atomic physics; collective phenomena

Citation Formats

Asenjo-Garcia, Ana, Kimble, H. J., and Chang, Darrick E. Optical waveguiding by atomic entanglement in multilevel atom arrays. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911467116.
Asenjo-Garcia, Ana, Kimble, H. J., & Chang, Darrick E. Optical waveguiding by atomic entanglement in multilevel atom arrays. United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911467116
Asenjo-Garcia, Ana, Kimble, H. J., and Chang, Darrick E. Tue . "Optical waveguiding by atomic entanglement in multilevel atom arrays". United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911467116. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1625047.
@article{osti_1625047,
title = {Optical waveguiding by atomic entanglement in multilevel atom arrays},
author = {Asenjo-Garcia, Ana and Kimble, H. J. and Chang, Darrick E.},
abstractNote = {The optical properties of subwavelength arrays of atoms or other quantum emitters have attracted significant interest recently. For example, the strong constructive or destructive interference of emitted light enables arrays to function as nearly perfect mirrors, support topological edge states, and allow for exponentially better quantum memories. In these proposals, the assumed atomic structure was simple, consisting of a unique electronic ground state. Within linear optics, the system is then equivalent to a periodic array of classical dielectric particles, whose periodicity supports the emergence of guided modes. However, it has not been known whether such phenomena persist in the presence of hyperfine structure, as exhibited by most quantum emitters. Here, we show that waveguiding can arise from rich atomic entanglement as a quantum many-body effect and elucidate the necessary conditions. Our work represents a significant step forward in understanding collective effects in arrays of atoms with realistic electronic structure.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1911467116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 51,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 4 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Illustration of the breakdown of the 2-level atom picture of dipole–dipole interactions, due to atomic hyperfine structure. (A) Illustration of photon-mediated interactions between two 2-level atoms, with unique ground and excited states. (B) Schematic of a 1D array of multilevel atoms extended along the z direction. The atomsmore » considered have 2 ground states {|0〉, |1〉}, with Zeeman quantum numbers mg = {−1/2, 1/2}, and 4 excited states {|2〉, |3〉, |4〉, |5〉}, with quantum numbers me = {−3/2,−1/2, 1/2, 3/2}, respectively. The angular-momentum quantization axis lies parallel to the orientation of the chain. The transitions are coupled by photons of different polarization (depicted by different colors), such that memg = {0,±1}, for polarizations {π,σ}, respectively. (C) Illustration of the breakdown of a 2-level subspace and subradiance. It is assumed that all atoms are initially in ground state mg =−1/2, with the exception of atom i, which decays from a stretched state emitting a photon. While atom i necessarily ends up in state mg =−1/2, the emitted photon does not have a spatially uniform polarization. In particular, in a geometry that is not purely 1D, the emitted photon could drive another atom k out of the stretched 2-level subspace (here illustrated by absorption of a σ+ photon). Once atom k is outside the 2-level subspace, the excited state can decay into an unoccupied state (illustrated here by emission of a π photon) at the rate of a single, isolated atom, which is not affected by collective effects.« less

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