skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulators

Abstract

A plasmonic modulator is a device that controls the amplitude or phase of propagating plasmons. In a pure plasmonic modulator, the presence or absence of a plasmonic pump wave controls the amplitude of a plasmonic probe wave through a channel. This control has to be mediated by an interaction between disparate plasmonic waves, typically requiring the integration of a nonlinear material. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulator based on a WSe2 monolayer integrated on top of a lithographically defined metallic waveguide. We utilize the strong interaction between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and excitons in the WSe2 to give a 73 % change in transmission through the device. We demonstrate control of the propagating SPPs using both optical and SPP pumps, realizing a 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulator, with an ultrafast response time of 290 fs.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Optical Sciences
  2. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  4. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; National Inst. for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)
  5. National Inst. for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1624175
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; Science & Technology - Other Topics

Citation Formats

Klein, Matthew, Badada, Bekele H., Binder, Rolf, Alfrey, Adam, McKie, Max, Koehler, Michael R., Mandrus, David G., Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, LeRoy, Brian J., and Schaibley, John R.. 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulators. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11186-w.
Klein, Matthew, Badada, Bekele H., Binder, Rolf, Alfrey, Adam, McKie, Max, Koehler, Michael R., Mandrus, David G., Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, LeRoy, Brian J., & Schaibley, John R.. 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulators. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11186-w
Klein, Matthew, Badada, Bekele H., Binder, Rolf, Alfrey, Adam, McKie, Max, Koehler, Michael R., Mandrus, David G., Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, LeRoy, Brian J., and Schaibley, John R.. Mon . "2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulators". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11186-w. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1624175.
@article{osti_1624175,
title = {2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulators},
author = {Klein, Matthew and Badada, Bekele H. and Binder, Rolf and Alfrey, Adam and McKie, Max and Koehler, Michael R. and Mandrus, David G. and Taniguchi, Takashi and Watanabe, Kenji and LeRoy, Brian J. and Schaibley, John R.},
abstractNote = {A plasmonic modulator is a device that controls the amplitude or phase of propagating plasmons. In a pure plasmonic modulator, the presence or absence of a plasmonic pump wave controls the amplitude of a plasmonic probe wave through a channel. This control has to be mediated by an interaction between disparate plasmonic waves, typically requiring the integration of a nonlinear material. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulator based on a WSe2 monolayer integrated on top of a lithographically defined metallic waveguide. We utilize the strong interaction between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and excitons in the WSe2 to give a 73 % change in transmission through the device. We demonstrate control of the propagating SPPs using both optical and SPP pumps, realizing a 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulator, with an ultrafast response time of 290 fs.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-11186-w},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Promise of Plasmonics
journal, April 2007


All-Plasmonic Modulation via Stimulated Emission of Copropagating Surface Plasmon Polaritons on a Substrate with Gain
journal, June 2011

  • Krasavin, Alexey V.; Vo, Thanh Phong; Dickson, Wayne
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl200255t

All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots
journal, July 2007

  • Pacifici, Domenico; Lezec, Henri J.; Atwater, Harry A.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 1, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2007.95

Ultrafast active plasmonics
journal, December 2008

  • MacDonald, Kevin F.; Sámson, Zsolt L.; Stockman, Mark I.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 3, Issue 1, p. 55-58
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2008.249

A Nonvolatile Plasmonic Switch Employing Photochromic Molecules
journal, May 2008

  • Pala, Ragip A.; Shimizu, Ken T.; Melosh, Nicholas A.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl0808839

Ultrafast all-optical modulator with femtojoule absorbed switching energy in silicon-on-insulator
journal, January 2010

  • Schönenberger, Sophie; Stöferle, Thilo; Moll, Nikolaj
  • Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.18.022485

Ultrafast all-optical modulation in a silicon nanoplasmonic resonator
journal, January 2013


Ultrafast all-optical modulation with hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in Si photonic circuitry
journal, January 2014

  • Neira, Andres D.; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Ginzburg, Pavel
  • Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.22.010987

Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator
journal, January 2014

  • Li, Wei; Chen, Bigeng; Meng, Chao
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl404356t

Ultrafast all-optical plasmonic graphene modulator
journal, January 2018


Ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical modulator based on deep-subwavelength graphene-loaded plasmonic waveguides
conference, January 2018

  • Ono, Masaaki; Hata, Masanori; Tsunekawa, Masato
  • CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics
  • DOI: 10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2018.FF2L.4

Atomically Thin MoS2 A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor
journal, September 2010


Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2
journal, August 2013

  • Jones, Aaron M.; Yu, Hongyi; Ghimire, Nirmal J.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.151

Emerging Photoluminescence in Monolayer MoS2
journal, April 2010

  • Splendiani, Andrea; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 4, p. 1271-1275
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl903868w

Population Pulsation Resonances of Excitons in Monolayer MoSe 2 with Sub- 1 μ eV Linewidths
journal, April 2015


Realization of an Electrically Tunable Narrow-Bandwidth Atomically Thin Mirror Using Monolayer MoSe 2
journal, January 2018


Electrical control of neutral and charged excitons in a monolayer semiconductor
journal, February 2013

  • Ross, Jason S.; Wu, Sanfeng; Yu, Hongyi
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2498

Large Excitonic Reflectivity of Monolayer MoSe 2 Encapsulated in Hexagonal Boron Nitride
journal, January 2018


Probing dark excitons in atomically thin semiconductors via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons
journal, June 2017

  • Zhou, You; Scuri, Giovanni; Wild, Dominik S.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2017.106

Radiative control of dark excitons at room temperature by nano-optical antenna-tip Purcell effect
journal, November 2017


Strong-coupling of WSe2 in ultra-compact plasmonic nanocavities at room temperature
journal, November 2017

  • Kleemann, Marie-Elena; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Alexeev, Evgeny M.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01398-3

Resonant surface plasmon–exciton interaction in hybrid MoSe 2 @Au nanostructures
journal, January 2016


Deterministic Coupling of Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials to Plasmonic Nanocavity Arrays
journal, March 2017


Coupling Emission from Single Localized Defects in Two-Dimensional Semiconductor to Surface Plasmon Polaritons
journal, October 2017


Fast pick up technique for high quality heterostructures of bilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride
journal, July 2014

  • Zomer, P. J.; Guimarães, M. H. D.; Brant, J. C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4886096

Near-Field Mediated Plexcitonic Coupling and Giant Rabi Splitting in Individual Metallic Dimers
journal, June 2013

  • Schlather, Andrea E.; Large, Nicolas; Urban, Alexander S.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl4014887

Ultrastrong Coupling of Electrically Pumped Near-Infrared Exciton-Polaritons in High Mobility Polymers
journal, December 2017

  • Held, Martin; Graf, Arko; Zakharko, Yuriy
  • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201700962

Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes
journal, October 2008

  • Fofang, Nche T.; Park, Tae-Ho; Neumann, Oara
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl8024278

Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures
journal, July 2005

  • Maier, Stefan A.; Atwater, Harry A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 98, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1951057

Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides
journal, January 2004

  • Nezhad, Maziar P.; Tetz, Kevin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu
  • Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.12.004072

Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies
journal, December 2009


Plasmon-exciton polaritons in two-dimensional semiconductor/metal interfaces
journal, January 2018


Many-body effects in nonlinear optical responses of 2D layered semiconductors
journal, February 2017


Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, September 2015

  • Moody, Galan; Kavir Dass, Chandriker; Hao, Kai
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9315

The Promise of PLASMONICS
journal, September 2007


Strong-coupling of WSe2 in ultra-compact plasmonic nanocavities at room temperature
text, January 2017

  • Kleemann, Marie-Elena; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Alexeev, Evgeny
  • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
  • DOI: 10.17863/cam.13402

The promise of plasmonics
journal, September 2009


Realization of an Electrically Tunable Narrow-Bandwidth Atomically Thin Mirror Using Monolayer MoSe2
text, January 2018


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Efficient All‐Optical Plasmonic Modulators with Atomically Thin Van Der Waals Heterostructures
    journal, February 2020


    All-optical modulation with 2D layered materials: status and prospects
    journal, February 2020