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Title: In vivo pressure gradient heterogeneity increases flow contribution of small diameter vessels in grapevine

Abstract

Leaves lose approximately 400 H2O molecules for every 1 CO2 gained during photosynthesis. Most long-distance water transport in plants, or xylem sap flow, serves to replace this water to prevent desiccation. Theory predicts that the largest vessels contribute disproportionately to overall sap flow because flow in pipe-like systems scales with the fourth power of radius. Here, we confront these theoretical flow predictions for a vessel network reconstructed from X-ray μCT imagery with in vivo flow MRI observations from the same sample of a first-year grapevine stem. Theoretical flow rate predictions based on vessel diameters are not supported. The heterogeneity of the vessel network gives rise to transverse pressure gradients that redirect flow from wide to narrow vessels, reducing the contribution of wide vessels to sap flow by 15% of the total. Our results call for an update of the current working model of the xylem to account for its heterogeneity.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); USDA
OSTI Identifier:
1619725
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1624227
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature Communications Journal Volume: 10 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; science & technology - other topics; plant physiology; plant sciences

Citation Formats

Bouda, Martin, Windt, Carel W., McElrone, Andrew J., and Brodersen, Craig R. In vivo pressure gradient heterogeneity increases flow contribution of small diameter vessels in grapevine. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13673-6.
Bouda, Martin, Windt, Carel W., McElrone, Andrew J., & Brodersen, Craig R. In vivo pressure gradient heterogeneity increases flow contribution of small diameter vessels in grapevine. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13673-6
Bouda, Martin, Windt, Carel W., McElrone, Andrew J., and Brodersen, Craig R. Tue . "In vivo pressure gradient heterogeneity increases flow contribution of small diameter vessels in grapevine". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13673-6.
@article{osti_1619725,
title = {In vivo pressure gradient heterogeneity increases flow contribution of small diameter vessels in grapevine},
author = {Bouda, Martin and Windt, Carel W. and McElrone, Andrew J. and Brodersen, Craig R.},
abstractNote = {Leaves lose approximately 400 H2O molecules for every 1 CO2 gained during photosynthesis. Most long-distance water transport in plants, or xylem sap flow, serves to replace this water to prevent desiccation. Theory predicts that the largest vessels contribute disproportionately to overall sap flow because flow in pipe-like systems scales with the fourth power of radius. Here, we confront these theoretical flow predictions for a vessel network reconstructed from X-ray μCT imagery with in vivo flow MRI observations from the same sample of a first-year grapevine stem. Theoretical flow rate predictions based on vessel diameters are not supported. The heterogeneity of the vessel network gives rise to transverse pressure gradients that redirect flow from wide to narrow vessels, reducing the contribution of wide vessels to sap flow by 15% of the total. Our results call for an update of the current working model of the xylem to account for its heterogeneity.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-13673-6},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13673-6

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Idealizations of xylem anatomy vs. networks derived from X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). a Current working model of xylem simplifies the xylem to parallel files of conduits of equal length, allowing it to be subdivided into units of one lumen and one end-wall resistance. Successive lumina are connected serially,more » with no connections across vessel files. b Four vessels (blue) segmented from a 3D stack of μCT images (at base). c Idealization of the same four vessels in the present model: each lumen is represented as circular in cross-section, with radius deduced from the data; connections (red) are placed at the centre of intervals where images show vessels to be connected.« less

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