skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Interactions between Kuroshio Extension and Central Tropical Pacific lead to preferred decadal-timescale oscillations in Pacific climate

Abstract

Abstract The Kuroshio Extension (KE) exhibits prominent decadal fluctuations that enhance the low-frequency variability of North Pacific climate. Using available observations, we show evidence that a preferred decadal timescale in the KE emerges from the interaction between KE and the central tropical Pacific via Meridional Modes. Specifically, we show that changes in the KE states apply a persistent downstream atmospheric response (e.g. wind stress curl, 0–12 months timescales) that projects on the atmospheric forcing of the Pacific Meridional Modes (PMM) over 9 months timescales. Subsequently, the PMM energizes the central tropical Pacific El Niño Southern Oscillation (CP-ENSO) and its atmospheric teleconnections back to the Northern Hemisphere (1–3 months timescale), which in turn excites oceanic Rossby waves in the central/eastern North Pacific that propagate westward changing the KE (~3 years timescales). Consistent with this hypothesis, the cross-correlation function between the KE and the PMM/CP-ENSO indices exhibits a significant sinusoidal shape corresponding to a preferred spectral power at decadal timescales (~10 years). This dynamics pathway (KE→PMM/CP-ENSO→KE) may provide a new mechanistic basis to explain the preferred decadal-timescale of the North Pacific and enhance decadal predictability of Pacific climate.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1619587
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1624490
Grant/Contract Number:  
DOE-RGMA; FG02-00ER41132
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Scientific Reports Journal Volume: 9 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Science & Technology - Other Topics

Citation Formats

Joh, Youngji, and Di Lorenzo, Emanuele. Interactions between Kuroshio Extension and Central Tropical Pacific lead to preferred decadal-timescale oscillations in Pacific climate. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49927-y.
Joh, Youngji, & Di Lorenzo, Emanuele. Interactions between Kuroshio Extension and Central Tropical Pacific lead to preferred decadal-timescale oscillations in Pacific climate. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49927-y
Joh, Youngji, and Di Lorenzo, Emanuele. Thu . "Interactions between Kuroshio Extension and Central Tropical Pacific lead to preferred decadal-timescale oscillations in Pacific climate". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49927-y.
@article{osti_1619587,
title = {Interactions between Kuroshio Extension and Central Tropical Pacific lead to preferred decadal-timescale oscillations in Pacific climate},
author = {Joh, Youngji and Di Lorenzo, Emanuele},
abstractNote = {Abstract The Kuroshio Extension (KE) exhibits prominent decadal fluctuations that enhance the low-frequency variability of North Pacific climate. Using available observations, we show evidence that a preferred decadal timescale in the KE emerges from the interaction between KE and the central tropical Pacific via Meridional Modes. Specifically, we show that changes in the KE states apply a persistent downstream atmospheric response (e.g. wind stress curl, 0–12 months timescales) that projects on the atmospheric forcing of the Pacific Meridional Modes (PMM) over 9 months timescales. Subsequently, the PMM energizes the central tropical Pacific El Niño Southern Oscillation (CP-ENSO) and its atmospheric teleconnections back to the Northern Hemisphere (1–3 months timescale), which in turn excites oceanic Rossby waves in the central/eastern North Pacific that propagate westward changing the KE (~3 years timescales). Consistent with this hypothesis, the cross-correlation function between the KE and the PMM/CP-ENSO indices exhibits a significant sinusoidal shape corresponding to a preferred spectral power at decadal timescales (~10 years). This dynamics pathway (KE→PMM/CP-ENSO→KE) may provide a new mechanistic basis to explain the preferred decadal-timescale of the North Pacific and enhance decadal predictability of Pacific climate.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-49927-y},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49927-y

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Spatial and temporal structures of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) and Pacific Meridional Modes (PMM) over the historical period. The spatial patterns of the KE and PMM computed by correlating (a) SSHa and KE index and (d) SSTa/winds and PMM index (see text for definitions). Normalized observational time variationsmore » of the (b) KE and (e) PMM indices between 1959–2017. The green line of (e) is the curl downstream index (black line in Fig. 4b) computed by using a downstream curl pattern of black box (Fig. 4a). Autocorrelation functions of (c) KE and (f) PMM indices with different time periods.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

ENSO and meridional modes: A null hypothesis for Pacific climate variability: ENSO AND MM PACIFIC DECADAL VARIABILITY
journal, November 2015

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Liguori, G.; Schneider, N.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066281

Influence of the Meridional Shifts of the Kuroshio and the Oyashio Extensions on the Atmospheric Circulation
journal, February 2011

  • Frankignoul, Claude; Sennéchael, Nathalie; Kwon, Young-Oh
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3731.1

Decadal Variability of the Kuroshio Extension: Observations and an Eddy-Resolving Model Hindcast
journal, June 2007

  • Taguchi, Bunmei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Schneider, Niklas
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4142.1

Patterns and Scales of Phytoplankton Variability in Estuarine–Coastal Ecosystems
journal, July 2009


Wind-Driven Shifts in the Latitude of the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension and Generation of SST Anomalies on Decadal Timescales*
journal, November 2001


Multi-year persistence of the 2014/15 North Pacific marine heatwave
journal, July 2016

  • Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Mantua, Nathan
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3082

Decadal-scale variability in the Kuroshio marine ecosystem in winter
journal, September 2003


Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates
journal, August 2015

  • Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1503190112

Highly Variable El Niño–Southern Oscillation Throughout the Holocene
journal, January 2013


The Atmospheric Bridge: The Influence of ENSO Teleconnections on Air–Sea Interaction over the Global Oceans
journal, August 2002


Coupled Decadal Variability in the North Pacific: An Observationally Constrained Idealized Model
journal, July 2007

  • Qiu, Bo; Schneider, Niklas; Chen, Shuiming
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4190.1

Pacific sea surface temperature and the winter of 2014: SST and 2014 Winter
journal, March 2015


Forcing of Low-Frequency Ocean Variability in the Northeast Pacific
journal, March 2009

  • Chhak, Kettyah C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Schneider, Niklas
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2639.1

A coupled ocean-atmosphere model of relevance to the ITCZ in the eastern Pacific
journal, January 1994

  • Xie, Shang-Ping; Philander, S. George H.
  • Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.3402/tellusa.v46i4.15484

Manifestation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the Kuroshio
journal, January 2009

  • Andres, Magdalena; Park, Jae-Hun; Wimbush, Mark
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL039216

The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Revisited
journal, June 2016

  • Newman, Matthew; Alexander, Michael A.; Ault, Toby R.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 29, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0508.1

Atmospheric bridge, oceanic tunnel, and global climatic teleconnections
journal, January 2007


The Impact of Extratropical Atmospheric Variability on ENSO: Testing the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism Using Coupled Model Experiments
journal, June 2010

  • Alexander, Michael A.; Vimont, Daniel J.; Chang, Ping
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3205.1

Robust contribution of decadal anomalies to the frequency of central-Pacific El Niño
journal, December 2016

  • Sullivan, Arnold; Luo, Jing-Jia; Hirst, Anthony C.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep38540

Central Pacific El Niño and decadal climate change in the North Pacific Ocean
journal, October 2010

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Cobb, K. M.; Furtado, J. C.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo984

Decadal-Scale SST and Salinity Variations in the Central Tropical Pacific: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change
journal, July 2011

  • Nurhati, Intan S.; Cobb, Kim M.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3852.1

Decadal Response of the Kuroshio Extension Jet to Rossby Waves: Observation and Thin-Jet Theory
journal, February 2013

  • Sasaki, Yoshi N.; Minobe, Shoshiro; Schneider, Niklas
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 43, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-096.1

The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

A Westward-Intensified Decadal Change in the North Pacific Thermocline and Gyre-Scale Circulation
journal, December 1998


Role of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio–Oyashio Systems in Large-Scale Atmosphere–Ocean Interaction: A Review
journal, June 2010

  • Kwon, Young-Oh; Alexander, Michael A.; Bond, Nicholas A.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3343.1

The Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism in the Pacific: Implications for ENSO*
journal, August 2003


ENSO regimes: Reinterpreting the canonical and Modoki El Niño: REINTERPRETING ENSO MODES
journal, May 2011

  • Takahashi, K.; Montecinos, A.; Goubanova, K.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047364

Understanding ENSO Diversity
journal, June 2015

  • Capotondi, Antonietta; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Newman, Matthew
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00117.1

Influence of the Decadal Variability of the Kuroshio Extension on the Atmospheric Circulation in the Cold Season
journal, March 2016

  • Révelard, Adèle; Frankignoul, Claude; Sennéchael, Nathalie
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 29, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0511.1

Heat Budget in the Kuroshio Extension Region: 1993–99
journal, December 2002


North Pacific Gyre Oscillation Synchronizes Climate Fluctuations in the Eastern and Western Boundary Systems
journal, October 2009

  • Ceballos, Lina I.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Hoyos, Carlos D.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2848.1

Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean
journal, January 2004


Analogous Pacific and Atlantic Meridional Modes of Tropical Atmosphere–Ocean Variability
journal, November 2004

  • Chiang, John C. H.; Vimont, Daniel J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 17, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4953.1

Meridional Modes and Increasing Pacific Decadal Variability Under Anthropogenic Forcing
journal, January 2018

  • Liguori, Giovanni; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076548

A Pacific Interdecadal Climate Oscillation with Impacts on Salmon Production
journal, June 1997


Tracking the Pacific Decadal Precession: Tracking the PDP
journal, March 2017

  • Anderson, Bruce T.; Furtado, Jason C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016jd025962

A double-integration hypothesis to explain ocean ecosystem response to climate forcing
journal, January 2013

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Ohman, M. D.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1218022110

Linkages between the North Pacific Oscillation and central tropical Pacific SSTs at low frequencies
journal, December 2011

  • Furtado, Jason C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Anderson, Bruce T.
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 39, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-011-1245-4

A Coupled Decadal Prediction of the Dynamic State of the Kuroshio Extension System
journal, February 2014


Kuroshio Extension Variability and Forcing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillations: Responses and Potential Feedback
journal, December 2003

  • Qiu, Bo
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 33, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/2459.1

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century
journal, January 2003


A decadal precession of atmospheric pressures over the North Pacific: Pacific Decadal Precession
journal, April 2016

  • Anderson, Bruce T.; Gianotti, Daniel J. S.; Furtado, Jason C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016gl068206

Nutrient and salinity decadal variations in the central and eastern North Pacific
journal, January 2009

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Fiechter, J.; Schneider, N.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL038261

A Dynamic Ocean–Atmosphere Model of the Tropical Atlantic Decadal Variability
journal, January 1999


Footprinting: A seasonal connection between the tropics and mid-latitudes
journal, October 2001

  • Vimont, Daniel J.; Battisti, David S.; Hirst, Anthony C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013435

Pacific meridional mode and El Niño-Southern Oscillation: PACIFIC MERIDIONAL MODE AND ENSO
journal, August 2007

  • Chang, Ping; Zhang, Li; Saravanan, R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030302

Revisiting the Pacific Meridional Mode
journal, February 2018


A Mechanism for the Recurrence of Wintertime Midlatitude SST Anomalies
journal, January 1995


Modification of the Gulf Stream through Strong Air–Sea Interactions in Winter: Observations and Numerical Simulations
journal, April 1995


Predicting Western North Pacific Ocean Climate
journal, October 2001


North Pacific Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change
journal, January 2008

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Schneider, N.; Cobb, K. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032838

Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the North-east Pacific: a case for historical science
journal, December 1994


SODA3: A New Ocean Climate Reanalysis
journal, September 2018

  • Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Chen, Ligang
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 31, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0149.1

The ECMWF Ocean Analysis System: ORA-S3
journal, August 2008

  • Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Vidard, Arthur; Anderson, David L. T.
  • Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 136, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2433.1

The Transient Atmospheric Circulation Response to North Atlantic SST and Sea Ice Anomalies
journal, September 2007

  • Deser, Clara; Tomas, Robert A.; Peng, Shiling
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4278.1

A coupled ocean-atmosphere model of relevance to the ITCZ in the eastern Pacific
journal, August 1994


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Empirical Evidence Linking the Pacific Decadal Precession to Kuroshio Extension Variability
    journal, December 2019

    • Anderson, Bruce T.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019jd031163

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.