skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Gamma-induced background in the KATRIN main spectrometer

Abstract

The KATRIN experiment aims to measure the effective electron antineutrino mass $$m_{\overline{\nu }_e}$$ m ν ¯ e with a sensitivity of $${0.2}\,{\hbox {eV}/\hbox {c}^2}$$ 0.2 eV / c 2 using a gaseous tritium source combined with the MAC-E filter technique. A low background rate is crucial to achieving the proposed sensitivity, and dedicated measurements have been performed to study possible sources of background electrons. In this work, we test the hypothesis that gamma radiation from external radioactive sources significantly increases the rate of background events created in the main spectrometer (MS) and observed in the focal-plane detector. Using detailed simulations of the gamma flux in the experimental hall, combined with a series of experimental tests that artificially increased or decreased the local gamma flux to the MS, we set an upper limit of $${0.006}\,{\hbox {count}/\hbox {s}}$$ 0.006 count / s  (90% C.L.) from this mechanism. Our results indicate the effectiveness of the electrostatic and magnetic shielding used to block secondary electrons emitted from the inner surface of the MS.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP); Helmholtz Association (HGF)
Contributing Org.:
KATRIN Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1619368
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1650074; OSTI ID: 1658855; OSTI ID: 1658950; OSTI ID: 1755501
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; FG02-94ER40818; FG02-97ER41020; FG02-97ER41033; FG02-97ER41041; SC0004036; SC0011091; SC0019304; SC0010118; 5A17PDA; 05A17PM3; 05A17PX3; 05A17VK2; 05A17WO3; VH-NG-1055
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields Journal Volume: 79 Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; neutrino

Citation Formats

Altenmüller, K., Arenz, M., Baek, W. -J., Beck, M., Beglarian, A., Behrens, J., Berlev, A., Besserer, U., Blaum, K., Block, F., Bobien, S., Bode, T., Bornschein, B., Bornschein, L., Bouquet, H., Brunst, T., Buzinsky, N., Chilingaryan, S., Choi, W. Q., Deffert, M., Doe, P. J., Dragoun, O., Drexlin, G., Dyba, S., Eitel, K., Ellinger, E., Engel, R., Enomoto, S., Erhard, M., Eversheim, D., Fedkevych, M., Formaggio, J. A., Fränkle, F. M., Franklin, G. B., Friedel, F., Fulst, A., Gil, W., Glück, F., Ureña, A. Gonzalez, Grössle, R., Gumbsheimer, R., Hackenjos, M., Hannen, V., Harms, F., Haußmann, N., Heizmann, F., Helbing, K., Herz, W., Hickford, S., Hilk, D., Hillesheimer, D., Howe, M. A., Huber, A., Jansen, A., Karl, C., Kellerer, J., Kernert, N., Kippenbrock, L., Klein, M., Kopmann, A., Korzeczek, M., Kovalík, A., Krasch, B., Kraus, A., Kraus, M., Lasserre, T., Lebeda, O., Lehnert, B., Letnev, J., Lokhov, A., Machatschek, M., Marsteller, A., Martin, E. L., Mertens, S., Mirz, S., Monreal, B., Neumann, H., Niemes, S., Osipowicz, A., Otten, E., Parno, D. S., Pollithy, A., Poon, A. W. P., Priester, F., Ranitzsch, P. C. -O., Rest, O., Robertson, R. G. H., Rodenbeck, C., Röllig, M., Röttele, C., Ryšavý, M., Sack, R., Saenz, A., Schimpf, L., Schlösser, K., Schlösser, M., Schlüter, L., Schrank, M., Seitz-Moskaliuk, H., Sibille, V., Slezák, M., Steidl, M., Steinbrink, N., Sturm, M., Suchopar, M., Tcherniakhovski, D., Telle, H. H., Thorne, L. A., Thümmler, T., Titov, N., Tkachev, I., Trost, N., Valerius, K., Vénos, D., Vianden, R., Hernández, A. P. Vizcaya, Weber, M., Weinheimer, C., Weiss, C., Welte, S., Wendel, J., Wilkerson, J. F., Wolf, J., Wüstling, S., Zadoroghny, S., and Zeller, G. Gamma-induced background in the KATRIN main spectrometer. Germany: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7320-4.
Altenmüller, K., Arenz, M., Baek, W. -J., Beck, M., Beglarian, A., Behrens, J., Berlev, A., Besserer, U., Blaum, K., Block, F., Bobien, S., Bode, T., Bornschein, B., Bornschein, L., Bouquet, H., Brunst, T., Buzinsky, N., Chilingaryan, S., Choi, W. Q., Deffert, M., Doe, P. J., Dragoun, O., Drexlin, G., Dyba, S., Eitel, K., Ellinger, E., Engel, R., Enomoto, S., Erhard, M., Eversheim, D., Fedkevych, M., Formaggio, J. A., Fränkle, F. M., Franklin, G. B., Friedel, F., Fulst, A., Gil, W., Glück, F., Ureña, A. Gonzalez, Grössle, R., Gumbsheimer, R., Hackenjos, M., Hannen, V., Harms, F., Haußmann, N., Heizmann, F., Helbing, K., Herz, W., Hickford, S., Hilk, D., Hillesheimer, D., Howe, M. A., Huber, A., Jansen, A., Karl, C., Kellerer, J., Kernert, N., Kippenbrock, L., Klein, M., Kopmann, A., Korzeczek, M., Kovalík, A., Krasch, B., Kraus, A., Kraus, M., Lasserre, T., Lebeda, O., Lehnert, B., Letnev, J., Lokhov, A., Machatschek, M., Marsteller, A., Martin, E. L., Mertens, S., Mirz, S., Monreal, B., Neumann, H., Niemes, S., Osipowicz, A., Otten, E., Parno, D. S., Pollithy, A., Poon, A. W. P., Priester, F., Ranitzsch, P. C. -O., Rest, O., Robertson, R. G. H., Rodenbeck, C., Röllig, M., Röttele, C., Ryšavý, M., Sack, R., Saenz, A., Schimpf, L., Schlösser, K., Schlösser, M., Schlüter, L., Schrank, M., Seitz-Moskaliuk, H., Sibille, V., Slezák, M., Steidl, M., Steinbrink, N., Sturm, M., Suchopar, M., Tcherniakhovski, D., Telle, H. H., Thorne, L. A., Thümmler, T., Titov, N., Tkachev, I., Trost, N., Valerius, K., Vénos, D., Vianden, R., Hernández, A. P. Vizcaya, Weber, M., Weinheimer, C., Weiss, C., Welte, S., Wendel, J., Wilkerson, J. F., Wolf, J., Wüstling, S., Zadoroghny, S., & Zeller, G. Gamma-induced background in the KATRIN main spectrometer. Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7320-4
Altenmüller, K., Arenz, M., Baek, W. -J., Beck, M., Beglarian, A., Behrens, J., Berlev, A., Besserer, U., Blaum, K., Block, F., Bobien, S., Bode, T., Bornschein, B., Bornschein, L., Bouquet, H., Brunst, T., Buzinsky, N., Chilingaryan, S., Choi, W. Q., Deffert, M., Doe, P. J., Dragoun, O., Drexlin, G., Dyba, S., Eitel, K., Ellinger, E., Engel, R., Enomoto, S., Erhard, M., Eversheim, D., Fedkevych, M., Formaggio, J. A., Fränkle, F. M., Franklin, G. B., Friedel, F., Fulst, A., Gil, W., Glück, F., Ureña, A. Gonzalez, Grössle, R., Gumbsheimer, R., Hackenjos, M., Hannen, V., Harms, F., Haußmann, N., Heizmann, F., Helbing, K., Herz, W., Hickford, S., Hilk, D., Hillesheimer, D., Howe, M. A., Huber, A., Jansen, A., Karl, C., Kellerer, J., Kernert, N., Kippenbrock, L., Klein, M., Kopmann, A., Korzeczek, M., Kovalík, A., Krasch, B., Kraus, A., Kraus, M., Lasserre, T., Lebeda, O., Lehnert, B., Letnev, J., Lokhov, A., Machatschek, M., Marsteller, A., Martin, E. L., Mertens, S., Mirz, S., Monreal, B., Neumann, H., Niemes, S., Osipowicz, A., Otten, E., Parno, D. S., Pollithy, A., Poon, A. W. P., Priester, F., Ranitzsch, P. C. -O., Rest, O., Robertson, R. G. H., Rodenbeck, C., Röllig, M., Röttele, C., Ryšavý, M., Sack, R., Saenz, A., Schimpf, L., Schlösser, K., Schlösser, M., Schlüter, L., Schrank, M., Seitz-Moskaliuk, H., Sibille, V., Slezák, M., Steidl, M., Steinbrink, N., Sturm, M., Suchopar, M., Tcherniakhovski, D., Telle, H. H., Thorne, L. A., Thümmler, T., Titov, N., Tkachev, I., Trost, N., Valerius, K., Vénos, D., Vianden, R., Hernández, A. P. Vizcaya, Weber, M., Weinheimer, C., Weiss, C., Welte, S., Wendel, J., Wilkerson, J. F., Wolf, J., Wüstling, S., Zadoroghny, S., and Zeller, G. Sat . "Gamma-induced background in the KATRIN main spectrometer". Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7320-4.
@article{osti_1619368,
title = {Gamma-induced background in the KATRIN main spectrometer},
author = {Altenmüller, K. and Arenz, M. and Baek, W. -J. and Beck, M. and Beglarian, A. and Behrens, J. and Berlev, A. and Besserer, U. and Blaum, K. and Block, F. and Bobien, S. and Bode, T. and Bornschein, B. and Bornschein, L. and Bouquet, H. and Brunst, T. and Buzinsky, N. and Chilingaryan, S. and Choi, W. Q. and Deffert, M. and Doe, P. J. and Dragoun, O. and Drexlin, G. and Dyba, S. and Eitel, K. and Ellinger, E. and Engel, R. and Enomoto, S. and Erhard, M. and Eversheim, D. and Fedkevych, M. and Formaggio, J. A. and Fränkle, F. M. and Franklin, G. B. and Friedel, F. and Fulst, A. and Gil, W. and Glück, F. and Ureña, A. Gonzalez and Grössle, R. and Gumbsheimer, R. and Hackenjos, M. and Hannen, V. and Harms, F. and Haußmann, N. and Heizmann, F. and Helbing, K. and Herz, W. and Hickford, S. and Hilk, D. and Hillesheimer, D. and Howe, M. A. and Huber, A. and Jansen, A. and Karl, C. and Kellerer, J. and Kernert, N. and Kippenbrock, L. and Klein, M. and Kopmann, A. and Korzeczek, M. and Kovalík, A. and Krasch, B. and Kraus, A. and Kraus, M. and Lasserre, T. and Lebeda, O. and Lehnert, B. and Letnev, J. and Lokhov, A. and Machatschek, M. and Marsteller, A. and Martin, E. L. and Mertens, S. and Mirz, S. and Monreal, B. and Neumann, H. and Niemes, S. and Osipowicz, A. and Otten, E. and Parno, D. S. and Pollithy, A. and Poon, A. W. P. and Priester, F. and Ranitzsch, P. C. -O. and Rest, O. and Robertson, R. G. H. and Rodenbeck, C. and Röllig, M. and Röttele, C. and Ryšavý, M. and Sack, R. and Saenz, A. and Schimpf, L. and Schlösser, K. and Schlösser, M. and Schlüter, L. and Schrank, M. and Seitz-Moskaliuk, H. and Sibille, V. and Slezák, M. and Steidl, M. and Steinbrink, N. and Sturm, M. and Suchopar, M. and Tcherniakhovski, D. and Telle, H. H. and Thorne, L. A. and Thümmler, T. and Titov, N. and Tkachev, I. and Trost, N. and Valerius, K. and Vénos, D. and Vianden, R. and Hernández, A. P. Vizcaya and Weber, M. and Weinheimer, C. and Weiss, C. and Welte, S. and Wendel, J. and Wilkerson, J. F. and Wolf, J. and Wüstling, S. and Zadoroghny, S. and Zeller, G.},
abstractNote = {The KATRIN experiment aims to measure the effective electron antineutrino mass $$m_{\overline{\nu }_e}$$mν¯e with a sensitivity of $${0.2}\,{\hbox {eV}/\hbox {c}^2}$$0.2eV/c2 using a gaseous tritium source combined with the MAC-E filter technique. A low background rate is crucial to achieving the proposed sensitivity, and dedicated measurements have been performed to study possible sources of background electrons. In this work, we test the hypothesis that gamma radiation from external radioactive sources significantly increases the rate of background events created in the main spectrometer (MS) and observed in the focal-plane detector. Using detailed simulations of the gamma flux in the experimental hall, combined with a series of experimental tests that artificially increased or decreased the local gamma flux to the MS, we set an upper limit of $${0.006}\,{\hbox {count}/\hbox {s}}$$0.006count/s (90% C.L.) from this mechanism. Our results indicate the effectiveness of the electrostatic and magnetic shielding used to block secondary electrons emitted from the inner surface of the MS.},
doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7320-4},
journal = {European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields},
number = 9,
volume = 79,
place = {Germany},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7320-4

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Background processes in the KATRIN main spectrometer
journal, September 2017


Nuclear Data Sheets for A=40
journal, February 2017


The wire electrode system for the KATRIN main spectrometer
journal, April 2010


Recent developments in Geant4
journal, November 2016

  • Allison, J.; Amako, K.; Apostolakis, J.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 835
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.06.125

The collimating and magnifying properties of a superconducting field photoelectron spectrometer
journal, January 1980

  • Beamson, G.; Porter, H. Q.; Turner, D. W.
  • Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, Vol. 13, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0022-3735/13/1/018

Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 60
journal, December 2013


Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment
journal, April 2015

  • Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 778
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.12.116

Technical design and commissioning of the KATRIN large-volume air coil system
journal, February 2018


A method for measuring the electron antineutrino rest mass
journal, October 1985

  • Lobashev, V. M.; Spivak, P. E.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 240, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(85)90640-0

Upper limit on the electron antineutrino mass from the Troitsk experiment
journal, December 2011


The KATRIN superconducting magnets: overview and first performance results
journal, August 2018


Muon-induced background in the KATRIN main spectrometer
journal, March 2019


Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer
journal, April 2016


Probabilistic model for the simulation of secondary electron emission
journal, December 2002


Simple calculation of energy distribution of low‐energy secondary electrons emitted from metals under electron bombardment
journal, February 1974

  • Chung, M. S.; Everhart, T. E.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 45, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1663306

Experimental investigation and Monte Carlo calculation of photon-induced electron emission from solids
journal, November 1984

  • Grudskii, M. Ya.; Roldugin, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 227, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(84)90110-4

Low Background Counting at LBNL
journal, January 2015


Monitoring of the operating parameters of the KATRIN Windowless Gaseous Tritium Source
journal, October 2012


The Cryogenic Pumping Section of the KATRIN Experiment
journal, June 2010

  • Gil, Woosik; Bonn, Jochen; Bornschein, Beate
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2009.2038581

Geant4 developments and applications
journal, February 2006

  • Allison, J.; Amako, K.; Apostolakis, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 53, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2006.869826

Secondary electron emission in the scanning electron microscope
journal, November 1983

  • Seiler, H.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 54, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.332840

0.1–10‐keV x‐ray‐induced electron emissions from solids—Models and secondary electron measurements
journal, May 1977

  • Henke, Burton L.; Smith, Jerel A.; Attwood, David T.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 48, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.323938

Experimental secondary electron spectra under SEM conditions
journal, July 2004


Geant4—a simulation toolkit
journal, July 2003

  • Agostinelli, S.; Allison, J.; Amako, K.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 506, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01368-8

Kassiopeia: a modern, extensible C++ particle tracking package
journal, May 2017


Electromagnetic design of the large-volume air coil system of the KATRIN experiment
journal, August 2013


Unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals
journal, April 1998


Final results from phase II of the Mainz neutrino mass searchin tritium ${\beta}$ decay
journal, April 2005


A solenoid retarding spectrometer with high resolution and transmission for keV electrons
journal, February 1992

  • Picard, A.; Backe, H.; Barth, H.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 63, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-583X(92)95119-C

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Improved Upper Limit on the Neutrino Mass from a Direct Kinematic Method by KATRIN
    journal, November 2019