skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Progress of physics understanding for long pulse high-performance plasmas on EAST towards the steady-state operation of ITER and CFETR

Abstract

Recently, the first ever 100 s long, steady-state H-mode discharge with good control of impurities, core and edge MHD stabilities, and heat exhaust was demonstrated in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) using the ITER-like (International Tokamak Experimental Reactor) tungsten upper divertor. Using both radio frequency (RF) power and neutral beam injection (NBI) heating, EAST has demonstrated fully non-inductive scenarios with an extension of fusion performance at high density and low rotation: β P ~ 2.5, β N ~ 2.0, H98,y2 ~ 1.2, bootstrap current fraction fBS ~50% at q95~ 6.8. With pure RF power heating, plasmas have been maintained for up to 21 s (over 40 times the current relaxation time) with zero loop voltage and small edge localized modes (ELMs) at high density (ne/nGW ~ 0.6–0.8), β P ~ 2.0, β N ~ 1.6, and ƒBS ~47%. Experimental investigations show how plasma current profiles, turbulent transport and radiation properties self-consistently evolve toward fusion relevant steady state conditions. Modeling and physics experiments have confirmed the synergistic effects between electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and low hybrid wave (LHW), where ECH enhances the heating and current drive from LHW injection, enabling fully non-inductive operation at higher density. Small/no ELMs facilitate themore » RF power coupling in the H-mode phase and reduce divertor erosion. A low tungsten concentration was observed at high β P with a hollow profile in the core. Reduction of the peak divertor heat flux with f rad of up to 40% was compatible with the high β P scenario by using active radiation feedback control. With features such as dominant electron heating, zero/low NBI torque and an ITER-like tungsten divertor, fully non-inductive high-performance experiments on EAST offer unique contributions towards the succesful operation of ITER and CFETR (the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The EAST team
OSTI Identifier:
1619194
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 62; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0741-3335
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Huang, J., Gong, X., Garofalo, A. M., Qian, J., Chen, J., Wu, M., Li, M., Yuan, Q., Wang, L., Pan, C., Lin, X., Yang, Q., Ekedahl, A., Maingi, R., Holcomb, C. T., Li, E., Zeng, L., Zhang, B., Chang, J. F., Zhang, X. J., Goniche, M., Peysson, Y., Zhu, X., Sun, Y., Xu, G., Zang, Q., Zhang, L., Liu, H., Lyu, B., Ding, R., Ren, Q., Ding, B., Guo, W., Ding, S., Xiang, N., Liang, Y., Liu, F., Zhao, Y., Xiao, B., Hu, J., Hu, C., Hu, L., Gao, X., Fu, P., Song, Y., Zhang, X. D., Chan, V., Li, J., and Wan, B. Progress of physics understanding for long pulse high-performance plasmas on EAST towards the steady-state operation of ITER and CFETR. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6587/ab56a5.
Huang, J., Gong, X., Garofalo, A. M., Qian, J., Chen, J., Wu, M., Li, M., Yuan, Q., Wang, L., Pan, C., Lin, X., Yang, Q., Ekedahl, A., Maingi, R., Holcomb, C. T., Li, E., Zeng, L., Zhang, B., Chang, J. F., Zhang, X. J., Goniche, M., Peysson, Y., Zhu, X., Sun, Y., Xu, G., Zang, Q., Zhang, L., Liu, H., Lyu, B., Ding, R., Ren, Q., Ding, B., Guo, W., Ding, S., Xiang, N., Liang, Y., Liu, F., Zhao, Y., Xiao, B., Hu, J., Hu, C., Hu, L., Gao, X., Fu, P., Song, Y., Zhang, X. D., Chan, V., Li, J., & Wan, B. Progress of physics understanding for long pulse high-performance plasmas on EAST towards the steady-state operation of ITER and CFETR. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6587/ab56a5
Huang, J., Gong, X., Garofalo, A. M., Qian, J., Chen, J., Wu, M., Li, M., Yuan, Q., Wang, L., Pan, C., Lin, X., Yang, Q., Ekedahl, A., Maingi, R., Holcomb, C. T., Li, E., Zeng, L., Zhang, B., Chang, J. F., Zhang, X. J., Goniche, M., Peysson, Y., Zhu, X., Sun, Y., Xu, G., Zang, Q., Zhang, L., Liu, H., Lyu, B., Ding, R., Ren, Q., Ding, B., Guo, W., Ding, S., Xiang, N., Liang, Y., Liu, F., Zhao, Y., Xiao, B., Hu, J., Hu, C., Hu, L., Gao, X., Fu, P., Song, Y., Zhang, X. D., Chan, V., Li, J., and Wan, B. Thu . "Progress of physics understanding for long pulse high-performance plasmas on EAST towards the steady-state operation of ITER and CFETR". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6587/ab56a5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1619194.
@article{osti_1619194,
title = {Progress of physics understanding for long pulse high-performance plasmas on EAST towards the steady-state operation of ITER and CFETR},
author = {Huang, J. and Gong, X. and Garofalo, A. M. and Qian, J. and Chen, J. and Wu, M. and Li, M. and Yuan, Q. and Wang, L. and Pan, C. and Lin, X. and Yang, Q. and Ekedahl, A. and Maingi, R. and Holcomb, C. T. and Li, E. and Zeng, L. and Zhang, B. and Chang, J. F. and Zhang, X. J. and Goniche, M. and Peysson, Y. and Zhu, X. and Sun, Y. and Xu, G. and Zang, Q. and Zhang, L. and Liu, H. and Lyu, B. and Ding, R. and Ren, Q. and Ding, B. and Guo, W. and Ding, S. and Xiang, N. and Liang, Y. and Liu, F. and Zhao, Y. and Xiao, B. and Hu, J. and Hu, C. and Hu, L. and Gao, X. and Fu, P. and Song, Y. and Zhang, X. D. and Chan, V. and Li, J. and Wan, B.},
abstractNote = {Recently, the first ever 100 s long, steady-state H-mode discharge with good control of impurities, core and edge MHD stabilities, and heat exhaust was demonstrated in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) using the ITER-like (International Tokamak Experimental Reactor) tungsten upper divertor. Using both radio frequency (RF) power and neutral beam injection (NBI) heating, EAST has demonstrated fully non-inductive scenarios with an extension of fusion performance at high density and low rotation: β P ~ 2.5, β N ~ 2.0, H98,y2 ~ 1.2, bootstrap current fraction fBS ~50% at q95~ 6.8. With pure RF power heating, plasmas have been maintained for up to 21 s (over 40 times the current relaxation time) with zero loop voltage and small edge localized modes (ELMs) at high density (ne/nGW ~ 0.6–0.8), β P ~ 2.0, β N ~ 1.6, and ƒBS ~47%. Experimental investigations show how plasma current profiles, turbulent transport and radiation properties self-consistently evolve toward fusion relevant steady state conditions. Modeling and physics experiments have confirmed the synergistic effects between electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and low hybrid wave (LHW), where ECH enhances the heating and current drive from LHW injection, enabling fully non-inductive operation at higher density. Small/no ELMs facilitate the RF power coupling in the H-mode phase and reduce divertor erosion. A low tungsten concentration was observed at high β P with a hollow profile in the core. Reduction of the peak divertor heat flux with f rad of up to 40% was compatible with the high β P scenario by using active radiation feedback control. With features such as dominant electron heating, zero/low NBI torque and an ITER-like tungsten divertor, fully non-inductive high-performance experiments on EAST offer unique contributions towards the succesful operation of ITER and CFETR (the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor).},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6587/ab56a5},
journal = {Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion},
number = 1,
volume = 62,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A dimensionless criterion for characterizing internal transport barriers in JET
journal, May 2002


Promising High-Confinement Regime for Steady-State Fusion
journal, June 2019


Stationary, high bootstrap fraction plasmas in DIII-D without inductive current control
journal, May 2005


DIII-D research towards establishing the scientific basis for future fusion reactors
journal, June 2019


Beta limits in long-pulse tokamak discharges
journal, May 1997

  • Sauter, O.; La Haye, R. J.; Chang, Z.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 4, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.872270

Neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current formulas for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime
journal, July 1999

  • Sauter, O.; Angioni, C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.873240

Non-inductively current driven H mode with high beta N and high beta p values in JT-60U
journal, December 1994


Absorption of lower hybrid waves in the scrape off layer of a diverted tokamak
journal, August 2010

  • Wallace, G. M.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3465662

Progress of the CFETR design
journal, June 2019


A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility for a fast-track path to DEMO
journal, October 2014


Lower hybrid current drive experiments with different launched wave frequencies in the EAST tokamak
journal, October 2016

  • Li, M. H.; Ding, B. J.; Liu, F. K.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4965904

Current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors
journal, August 2010

  • Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1052

Development of high poloidal beta, steady-state scenario with ITER-like tungsten divertor on EAST
journal, June 2017


Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime
journal, June 2016

  • Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4948724

Frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas-causes and effects
journal, April 1994


Predictions of the near edge transport shortfall in DIII-D L-mode plasmas using the trapped gyro-Landau-fluid model
journal, January 2015

  • Kinsey, J. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4905630

Internal transport barriers: critical physics issues?
journal, April 2006


SOL effects on the pedestal structure in DIII-D discharges
journal, May 2017


Transport modeling of the DIII-D high ${{\beta}_{p}}$ scenario and extrapolations to ITER steady-state operation
journal, August 2017


Improved high-performance fully non-inductive discharge by optimizing the fast-ion confinement on EAST
journal, October 2019


Creating an Asymmetric Plasma Resistivity with Waves
journal, September 1980


Integrated plasma control for long pulse advanced plasma discharges on EAST
journal, March 2018


Numerical study of the synergy effects of electron cyclotron wave and two lower-hybrid waves in the current drive process
journal, August 2017

  • Yang, Youlei; Xiang, Nong; Hu, Ye Min
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4994547

Frequency Scaling of the Lower-Hybrid-Current-Drive Density Limit in Tokamak Plasmas
journal, August 1985


Current status and upgrade activities on the guard limiter of 4.6 GHz lower hybrid antennas for EAST tokamak
journal, December 2017


Internal transport barriers in tokamak plasmas*
journal, November 2002


Influence of Li conditioning on Lower Hybrid Current Drive efficiency in H-mode and L- mode plasmas on EAST
journal, January 2017


Compatibility of internal transport barrier with steady-state operation in the high bootstrap fraction regime on DIII-D
journal, November 2015


Joint DIII-D/EAST research on the development of a high poloidal beta scenario for the steady state missions of ITER and CFETR
journal, November 2017

  • Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Ding, S. Y.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 60, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa8c9d

Chapter 6: Steady state operation
journal, June 2007


Self-consistent modeling of CFETR baseline scenarios for steady-state operation
journal, May 2017

  • Chen, Jiale; Jian, Xiang; Chan, Vincent S.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 59, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa6d20

Transport barriers in bootstrap-driven tokamaks
journal, May 2018

  • Staebler, G. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Pan, C.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5019282

Fast-ion transport in qmin>2, high- β steady-state scenarios on DIII-Da)
journal, May 2015

  • Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Ferron, J. R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4921152

Turbulent energy exchange: Calculation and relevance for profile prediction
journal, August 2013