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Title: Interplanetary Protons versus Interacting Protons in the 2017 September 10 Solar Eruptive Event

Abstract

We analyze the relativistic proton emission from the Sun during the eruptive event on 2017 September 10, which caused a ground-level enhancement (GLE 72) registered by the worldwide network of neutron monitors. Using the neutron monitor data and interplanetary transport modeling both along and across interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, we deduce parameters of the proton injection into the interplanetary medium. The inferred injection profile of the interplanetary protons is compared with the profile of the >100 MeV γ-ray emission observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, attributed to pion production from the interaction of >300 MeV protons at the Sun. GLE 72 started with a prompt component that arrived along the IMF lines. This was followed by a more prolonged enhancement caused by protons arriving at the Earth across the IMF lines from the southwest. The interplanetary proton event is modeled using two sources—one source at the root of the Earth-connected IMF line and another source situated near the solar western limb. The maximum phase of the second injection of interplanetary protons coincides with the maximum phase of the prolonged >100 MeV γ-ray emission that originated from a small area at the solar western limb, below the current sheetmore » trailing the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). A possible common source of interacting protons and interplanetary protons is discussed in terms of proton acceleration at the CME bow shock versus coronal (re-)acceleration in the wake of the CME.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [4];  [10]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Oulu (Finland)
  2. National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy)
  3. Univ. of Central Lancashire (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. of Kiel (Germany)
  5. Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab., Palo Alto, CA (United States); SETI Inst., Mountain View, CA (United States)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Univ. of Trieste (Italy)
  8. Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)
  9. Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia)
  10. Univ. of Turku (Finland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1617136
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 304435 (CRIPA-X)
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 890; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Solar coronal mass ejections; Solar energetic particles; Solar particle emission; Solar coronal mass ejection shocks; Solar flares; Solar gamma-ray emission

Citation Formats

Kocharov, Leon, Pesce-Rollins, Melissa, Laitinen, Timo, Mishev, Alexander, Kühl, Patrick, Klassen, Andreas, Jin, Meng, Omodei, Nicola, Longo, Francesco, Webb, David F., Cane, Hilary V., Heber, Bernd, Vainio, Rami, and Usoskin, Ilya. Interplanetary Protons versus Interacting Protons in the 2017 September 10 Solar Eruptive Event. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab684e.
Kocharov, Leon, Pesce-Rollins, Melissa, Laitinen, Timo, Mishev, Alexander, Kühl, Patrick, Klassen, Andreas, Jin, Meng, Omodei, Nicola, Longo, Francesco, Webb, David F., Cane, Hilary V., Heber, Bernd, Vainio, Rami, & Usoskin, Ilya. Interplanetary Protons versus Interacting Protons in the 2017 September 10 Solar Eruptive Event. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab684e
Kocharov, Leon, Pesce-Rollins, Melissa, Laitinen, Timo, Mishev, Alexander, Kühl, Patrick, Klassen, Andreas, Jin, Meng, Omodei, Nicola, Longo, Francesco, Webb, David F., Cane, Hilary V., Heber, Bernd, Vainio, Rami, and Usoskin, Ilya. Fri . "Interplanetary Protons versus Interacting Protons in the 2017 September 10 Solar Eruptive Event". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab684e. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1617136.
@article{osti_1617136,
title = {Interplanetary Protons versus Interacting Protons in the 2017 September 10 Solar Eruptive Event},
author = {Kocharov, Leon and Pesce-Rollins, Melissa and Laitinen, Timo and Mishev, Alexander and Kühl, Patrick and Klassen, Andreas and Jin, Meng and Omodei, Nicola and Longo, Francesco and Webb, David F. and Cane, Hilary V. and Heber, Bernd and Vainio, Rami and Usoskin, Ilya},
abstractNote = {We analyze the relativistic proton emission from the Sun during the eruptive event on 2017 September 10, which caused a ground-level enhancement (GLE 72) registered by the worldwide network of neutron monitors. Using the neutron monitor data and interplanetary transport modeling both along and across interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, we deduce parameters of the proton injection into the interplanetary medium. The inferred injection profile of the interplanetary protons is compared with the profile of the >100 MeV γ-ray emission observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, attributed to pion production from the interaction of >300 MeV protons at the Sun. GLE 72 started with a prompt component that arrived along the IMF lines. This was followed by a more prolonged enhancement caused by protons arriving at the Earth across the IMF lines from the southwest. The interplanetary proton event is modeled using two sources—one source at the root of the Earth-connected IMF line and another source situated near the solar western limb. The maximum phase of the second injection of interplanetary protons coincides with the maximum phase of the prolonged >100 MeV γ-ray emission that originated from a small area at the solar western limb, below the current sheet trailing the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). A possible common source of interacting protons and interplanetary protons is discussed in terms of proton acceleration at the CME bow shock versus coronal (re-)acceleration in the wake of the CME.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab684e},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 890,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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