skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Fermi and Swift Observations of GRB 190114C: Tracing the Evolution of High-energy Emission from Prompt to Afterglow

Abstract

We report on the observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 190114C by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. The prompt gamma-ray emission was detected by the Fermi GRB Monitor (GBM), the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the long-lived afterglow emission was subsequently observed by the GBM, LAT, Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), and Swift UV Optical Telescope. The early-time observations reveal multiple emission components that evolve independently, with a delayed power-law component that exhibits significant spectral attenuation above 40 MeV in the first few seconds of the burst. This power-law component transitions to a harder spectrum that is consistent with the afterglow emission observed by the XRT at later times. This afterglow component is clearly identifiable in the GBM and BAT light curves as a slowly fading emission component on which the rest of the prompt emission is superimposed. As a result, we are able to observe the transition from internal-shock- to external-shock-dominated emission. We find that the temporal and spectral evolution of the broadband afterglow emission can be well modeled as synchrotron emission from a forward shock propagating into a wind-like circumstellar environment. We estimate the initial bulkmore » Lorentz factor using the observed high-energy spectral cutoff. Considering the onset of the afterglow component, we constrain the deceleration radius at which this forward shock begins to radiate in order to estimate the maximum synchrotron energy as a function of time. We find that even in the LAT energy range, there exist high-energy photons that are in tension with the theoretical maximum energy that can be achieved through synchrotron emission from a shock. These violations of the maximum synchrotron energy are further compounded by the detection of very high-energy (VHE) emission above 300 GeV by MAGIC concurrent with our observations. We conclude that the observations of VHE photons from GRB 190114C necessitates either an additional emission mechanism at very high energies that is hidden in the synchrotron component in the LAT energy range, an acceleration mechanism that imparts energy to the particles at a rate that is faster than the electron synchrotron energy-loss rate, or revisions of the fundamental assumptions used in estimating the maximum photon energy attainable through the synchrotron process.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; Israel Science Foundation
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1617135
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 890; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Gamma-ray bursts

Citation Formats

Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berretta, A., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burns, E., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Costantin, D., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., DeKlotz, M., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Desai, A., Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Fana Dirirsa, F., Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Granot, J., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kovac’evic’, M., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Liodakis, I., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mereu, I., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Pei, Z., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ryde, F., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Tajima, H., Takagi, K., Takahashi, M. N., Tak, D., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Valverde, J., Klaveren, B. Van, Wood, K., Yassine, M., Zaharijas, G., Mailyan, B., Bhat, P. N., Briggs, M. S., Cleveland, W., Giles, M., Goldstein, A., Hui, M., Malacaria, Christian, Preece, R., Roberts, O. J., Veres, P., Wilson-Hodge, C., Kienlin, A. von, Cenko, S. B., O’Brien, P., Beardmore, A. P., Lien, A., Osborne, J. P., Tohuvavohu, A., D’Elia, V., D’Aì, A., Perri, M., Gropp, J., Klingler, N., Capalbi, M., Tagliaferri, G., Stamatikos, M., and De Pasquale, M. Fermi and Swift Observations of GRB 190114C: Tracing the Evolution of High-energy Emission from Prompt to Afterglow. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab5b05.
Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berretta, A., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burns, E., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Costantin, D., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., DeKlotz, M., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Desai, A., Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Fana Dirirsa, F., Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Granot, J., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kovac’evic’, M., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Liodakis, I., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mereu, I., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Pei, Z., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ryde, F., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Tajima, H., Takagi, K., Takahashi, M. N., Tak, D., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Valverde, J., Klaveren, B. Van, Wood, K., Yassine, M., Zaharijas, G., Mailyan, B., Bhat, P. N., Briggs, M. S., Cleveland, W., Giles, M., Goldstein, A., Hui, M., Malacaria, Christian, Preece, R., Roberts, O. J., Veres, P., Wilson-Hodge, C., Kienlin, A. von, Cenko, S. B., O’Brien, P., Beardmore, A. P., Lien, A., Osborne, J. P., Tohuvavohu, A., D’Elia, V., D’Aì, A., Perri, M., Gropp, J., Klingler, N., Capalbi, M., Tagliaferri, G., Stamatikos, M., & De Pasquale, M. Fermi and Swift Observations of GRB 190114C: Tracing the Evolution of High-energy Emission from Prompt to Afterglow. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab5b05
Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berretta, A., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burns, E., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Costantin, D., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., DeKlotz, M., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Desai, A., Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Fana Dirirsa, F., Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Granot, J., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kovac’evic’, M., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Liodakis, I., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mereu, I., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Pei, Z., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ryde, F., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Tajima, H., Takagi, K., Takahashi, M. N., Tak, D., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Valverde, J., Klaveren, B. Van, Wood, K., Yassine, M., Zaharijas, G., Mailyan, B., Bhat, P. N., Briggs, M. S., Cleveland, W., Giles, M., Goldstein, A., Hui, M., Malacaria, Christian, Preece, R., Roberts, O. J., Veres, P., Wilson-Hodge, C., Kienlin, A. von, Cenko, S. B., O’Brien, P., Beardmore, A. P., Lien, A., Osborne, J. P., Tohuvavohu, A., D’Elia, V., D’Aì, A., Perri, M., Gropp, J., Klingler, N., Capalbi, M., Tagliaferri, G., Stamatikos, M., and De Pasquale, M. Thu . "Fermi and Swift Observations of GRB 190114C: Tracing the Evolution of High-energy Emission from Prompt to Afterglow". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab5b05. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1617135.
@article{osti_1617135,
title = {Fermi and Swift Observations of GRB 190114C: Tracing the Evolution of High-energy Emission from Prompt to Afterglow},
author = {Ajello, M. and Arimoto, M. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Berretta, A. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burns, E. and Buson, S. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Chen, S. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Costantin, D. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and DeKlotz, M. and Torre Luque, P. de la and Palma, F. de and Desai, A. and Lalla, N. Di and Venere, L. Di and Fana Dirirsa, F. and Fegan, S. J. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Gill, R. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Granot, J. and Green, D. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Guiriec, S. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kocevski, D. and Kovac’evic’, M. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Li, J. and Liodakis, I. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Maldera, S. and Malyshev, D. and Manfreda, A. and Martí-Devesa, G. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mereu, I. and Meyer, M. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Palatiello, M. and Paliya, V. S. and Paneque, D. and Pei, Z. and Persic, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Piron, F. and Poon, H. and Porter, T. A. and Principe, G. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Rani, B. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Ryde, F. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Serini, D. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Tajima, H. and Takagi, K. and Takahashi, M. N. and Tak, D. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Torres, D. F. and Troja, E. and Valverde, J. and Klaveren, B. Van and Wood, K. and Yassine, M. and Zaharijas, G. and Mailyan, B. and Bhat, P. N. and Briggs, M. S. and Cleveland, W. and Giles, M. and Goldstein, A. and Hui, M. and Malacaria, Christian and Preece, R. and Roberts, O. J. and Veres, P. and Wilson-Hodge, C. and Kienlin, A. von and Cenko, S. B. and O’Brien, P. and Beardmore, A. P. and Lien, A. and Osborne, J. P. and Tohuvavohu, A. and D’Elia, V. and D’Aì, A. and Perri, M. and Gropp, J. and Klingler, N. and Capalbi, M. and Tagliaferri, G. and Stamatikos, M. and De Pasquale, M.},
abstractNote = {We report on the observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 190114C by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. The prompt gamma-ray emission was detected by the Fermi GRB Monitor (GBM), the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the long-lived afterglow emission was subsequently observed by the GBM, LAT, Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), and Swift UV Optical Telescope. The early-time observations reveal multiple emission components that evolve independently, with a delayed power-law component that exhibits significant spectral attenuation above 40 MeV in the first few seconds of the burst. This power-law component transitions to a harder spectrum that is consistent with the afterglow emission observed by the XRT at later times. This afterglow component is clearly identifiable in the GBM and BAT light curves as a slowly fading emission component on which the rest of the prompt emission is superimposed. As a result, we are able to observe the transition from internal-shock- to external-shock-dominated emission. We find that the temporal and spectral evolution of the broadband afterglow emission can be well modeled as synchrotron emission from a forward shock propagating into a wind-like circumstellar environment. We estimate the initial bulk Lorentz factor using the observed high-energy spectral cutoff. Considering the onset of the afterglow component, we constrain the deceleration radius at which this forward shock begins to radiate in order to estimate the maximum synchrotron energy as a function of time. We find that even in the LAT energy range, there exist high-energy photons that are in tension with the theoretical maximum energy that can be achieved through synchrotron emission from a shock. These violations of the maximum synchrotron energy are further compounded by the detection of very high-energy (VHE) emission above 300 GeV by MAGIC concurrent with our observations. We conclude that the observations of VHE photons from GRB 190114C necessitates either an additional emission mechanism at very high energies that is hidden in the synchrotron component in the LAT energy range, an acceleration mechanism that imparts energy to the particles at a rate that is faster than the electron synchrotron energy-loss rate, or revisions of the fundamental assumptions used in estimating the maximum photon energy attainable through the synchrotron process.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab5b05},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 890,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A Leptonic–Hadronic Model for the Afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst 090510
journal, November 2010


Estimating the Dimension of a Model
journal, March 1978


Detection of a Spectral Break in the Extra hard Component of grb 090926a
journal, February 2011


A new Mechanism for Dissipation of Alternating Fields in Poynting-Dominated Outflows
journal, December 2010


ON THE ORIGIN OF > 10 GeV PHOTONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS
journal, June 2013


The Swift X-Ray Telescope
journal, October 2005


Maximum synchrotron frequency for shock-accelerated particles: Maximum synchrotron frequency for shocks
journal, September 2012


The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
journal, October 2005

  • Roming, Peter W. A.; Kennedy, Thomas E.; Mason, Keith O.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 120, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-005-5095-4

High-Energy Emission of grb 130427a: Evidence for Inverse Compton Radiation
journal, October 2013


The Environments around Long‐Duration Gamma‐Ray Burst Progenitors
journal, August 2006

  • Fryer, Christopher L.; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Young, Patrick A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 647, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/505590

ON THE ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTION INDEX OF SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS
journal, May 2010


A Decade of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Fermi -LAT: The Second GRB Catalog
journal, June 2019


GRB 080319B: evidence for relativistic turbulence, not internal shocks
journal, May 2009


Klein–Nishina Effects on Optically thin Synchrotron and Synchrotron Self-Compton Spectrum
journal, August 2009


Temporal Evolution of the Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Spectrum for an Observer: GeV–TeV Synchrotron Self-Compton Light Curve
journal, July 2017

  • Fukushima, Takuma; To, Sho; Asano, Katsuaki
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 844, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa7b83

High-energy γ-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts — before GLAST
journal, July 2008


THE THIRD SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG
journal, September 2016

  • Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Barthelmy, Scott D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 829, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/829/1/7

Gamma-ray bursts from stellar mass accretion disks around black holes
journal, March 1993

  • Woosley, S. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 405
  • DOI: 10.1086/172359

HIGH-ENERGY NON-THERMAL AND THERMAL EMISSION FROM GRB 141207A DETECTED BY FERMI
journal, December 2016


Opacity Buildup in Impulsive Relativistic Sources
journal, April 2008

  • Granot, Jonathan; Cohen‐Tanugi, Johann; do Couto e. Silva, Eduardo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/526414

Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C
journal, February 2009


Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era
journal, September 2009


A model of gamma-ray bursts
journal, October 1994

  • Thompson, Christopher
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 270, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/270.3.480

Methods and results of an automatic analysis of a complete sample of Swift -XRT observations of GRBs
journal, August 2009


Do Fermi Large Area Telescope observations imply very large Lorentz factors in gamma-ray burst outflows?: γγconstraints on GRBs from LAT observations
journal, January 2012


FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES
journal, May 2010


Spectra and Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows
journal, April 1998

  • Sari, Re'em; Piran, Tsvi; Narayan, Ramesh
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 497, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311269

Off-Axis Afterglow Emission from Jetted Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, May 2002

  • Granot, Jonathan; Panaitescu, Alin; Kumar, Pawan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 570, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/340991

Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasmas and Its Astrophysical Applications
journal, January 2015


Grb110721a: an Extreme peak Energy and Signatures of the Photosphere
journal, September 2012


Lower Limits on Lorentz Factors in Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, July 2001

  • Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re’em
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 555, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/321455

A REVISED LIMIT OF THE LORENTZ FACTORS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTs WITH TWO EMITTING REGIONS
journal, December 2010


CONSTRAINTS ON THE SYNCHROTRON SHOCK MODEL FOR THE FERMI GRB 090820A OBSERVED BY GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR
journal, October 2011

  • Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.; Baring, Matthew G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 741, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/24

Gamma-ray burst afterglow scaling coefficients for general density profiles
journal, April 2009


Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves in the Relativistic Turbulence and Relativistic Subjet Models
journal, March 2009


Erratum: “The Swift Gamma‐Ray Burst Mission” (ApJ, 611, 1005 [2004])
journal, March 2005

  • Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 621, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/427409

FERMI DETECTION OF DELAYED GeV EMISSION FROM THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST 081024B
journal, March 2010


Investigating the Nature of Late-time High-energy GRB Emission through Joint Fermi / Swift Observations
journal, August 2018


Are gamma-ray bursts optically thick?
journal, September 1986


Gamma-ray bursters at cosmological distances
journal, September 1986

  • Paczynski, B.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 308
  • DOI: 10.1086/184740

The effect of pair cascades on the high-energy spectral cut-off in gamma-ray bursts
journal, December 2017

  • Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 475, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slx199

Gamma-ray bursts and the fireball model
journal, June 1999


THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 130427A FROM 1 TO 10 16 GHz
journal, January 2014


THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
journal, May 2009


Calibration of X-ray absorption in our Galaxy
journal, March 2013

  • Willingale, R.; Starling, R. L. C.; Beardmore, A. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 431, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt175

On the Synchrotron Self‐Compton Emission from Relativistic Shocks and Its Implications for Gamma‐Ray Burst Afterglows
journal, February 2001

  • Sari, Re’em; Esin, Ann A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 548, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/319003

The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the SWIFT Midex Mission
journal, October 2005

  • Barthelmy, Scott D.; Barbier, Louis M.; Cummings, Jay R.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 120, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-005-5096-3

The Escape of High‐Energy Photons from Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, December 1997

  • Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 491, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/304982

Hydrodynamic Timescales and Temporal Structure of Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, December 1995

  • Sari, Re'em; Piran, Tsvi
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 455, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/309835

Polarization of Prompt Gamma‐Ray Burst Emission: Evidence for Electromagnetically Dominated Outflow
journal, November 2003

  • Lyutikov, M.; Pariev, V. I.; Blandford, R. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 597, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/378497

Constraints on the Synchrotron Emission Mechanism in Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, May 2013


Gamma‐Ray Burst Early Optical Afterglows: Implications for the Initial Lorentz Factor and the Central Engine
journal, October 2003

  • Zhang, Bing; Kobayashi, Shiho; Meszaros, Peter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 595, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/377363

How bad or good are the External Forward Shock Afterglow Models of Gamma-Ray Bursts?
journal, July 2015

  • Wang, Xiang-Gao; Zhang, Bing; Liang, En-Wei
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 219, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/219/1/9

AFTERGLOW OBSERVATIONS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THE EMERGING CLASS OF HYPER-ENERGETIC EVENTS
journal, April 2011


FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090902B: A DISTINCT SPECTRAL COMPONENT IN THE PROMPT AND DELAYED EMISSION
journal, November 2009


The Shape of Spectral Breaks in Gamma‐Ray Burst Afterglows
journal, April 2002

  • Granot, Jonathan; Sari, Re’em
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 568, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/338966

Light Curves of Gamma‐Ray Burst Optical Flashes
journal, December 2000

  • Kobayashi, Shiho
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 545, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/317869

GRB 190114C: from prompt to afterglow?
journal, June 2019


MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 110731A: GeV EMISSION FROM ONSET TO AFTERGLOW
journal, January 2013


Gamma-Ray Bursts from Magnetic Reconnection: Variability and Robustness of Light Curves
journal, January 2016


Hydrodynamics of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow
journal, November 1997

  • Sari, Re'em
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 489, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/310957

FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C
journal, November 2009


The Bright and the Slow—GRBs 100724B and 160509A with High-energy Cutoffs at ≲100 MeV
journal, September 2018


Unsteady outflow models for cosmological gamma-ray bursts
journal, August 1994

  • Rees, M. J.; Meszaros, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 430
  • DOI: 10.1086/187446

Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A
journal, November 2013


Spectral and timing properties of a dissipative $\vec\gamma$-ray burst photosphere
journal, March 2007


The Synchrotron-self-Compton Radiation Accompanying Shallow Decaying X-Ray Afterglow: the Case of GRB 940217
journal, August 2007

  • Wei, Da-Ming; Fan, Yi-Zhong
  • Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1088/1009-9271/7/4/06

THE THIRD FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG: THE FIRST SIX YEARS
journal, April 2016

  • Bhat, P. Narayana; Meegan, Charles A.; von Kienlin, Andreas
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 223, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/0067-0049/223/2/28

On the Energy of Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, February 2001

  • Freedman, Deborah L.; Waxman, Eli
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 547, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/318386

MEASURING THE BULK LORENTZ FACTORS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH FERMI
journal, June 2015


NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 130427A ESTABLISH A SINGLE COMPONENT SYNCHROTRON AFTERGLOW ORIGIN FOR THE LATE OPTICAL TO MULTI-GEV EMISSION
journal, November 2013


ALMA Detection of a Linearly Polarized Reverse Shock in GRB 190114C
journal, June 2019

  • Laskar, Tanmoy; Alexander, Kate D.; Gill, Ramandeep
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 878, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab2247

The circumburst density profile around GRB progenitors: a statistical study
journal, December 2010


BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity
journal, August 1993

  • Band, D.; Matteson, J.; Ford, L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
  • DOI: 10.1086/172995

Analytic Light Curves of Gamma‐Ray Burst Afterglows: Homogeneous versus Wind External Media
journal, November 2000

  • Panaitescu, A.; Kumar, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 543, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/317090

THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR
journal, August 2009


Discovery of an Extra hard Spectral Component in the High-Energy Afterglow Emission of grb 130427a
journal, June 2013


Detection of a Thermal Spectral Component in the Prompt Emission of grb 100724b
journal, January 2011

  • Guiriec, Sylvain; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 727, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/727/2/L33

THE FIRST FERMI -LAT GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG
journal, October 2013

  • Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 209, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/209/1/11

Relativistic fireballs: energy conversion and time-scales
journal, September 1992

  • Rees, M. J.; Meszaros, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 258, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/258.1.41P

Energy Spectra of Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Ultrarelativistic Shock Waves
journal, May 1998


An online repository of Swift /XRT light curves of $\vec \gamma$-ray bursts
journal, April 2007


The physics of gamma-ray bursts
journal, January 2005


Large scale magnetic fields and their dissipation in GRB fireballs
journal, April 2001


Gamma-Ray Bursts: Multiwaveband Spectral Predictions for Blast Wave Models
journal, November 1993

  • Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 418
  • DOI: 10.1086/187116

Impulsive and Varying Injection in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows
journal, May 2000

  • Sari, Re’em; Mészáros, Peter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 535, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/312689