skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Exploring the regime of validity of global gyrokinetic simulations with spherical tokamak plasmas

Abstract

Plasma turbulence is considered one of the main mechanisms for driving anomalous thermal transport in magnetic confinement fusion devices. Based on first-principle model, gradient driven gyrokinetic simulations have often been used to explain turbulence-driven transport in present fusion devices, and in fact, many present predictive codes are based on the assumption that turbulence is gradient-driven. However, using the electrostatic global particle-in-cell gyrokinetic tokamak simulation (GTS) code (Wang et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 072511), we will show that while global gradient-driven gyrokinetic simulations provide decent agreement in ion thermal transport with a set of NBI-heated NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) H-mode plasmas, they are not able to explain the observed electron thermal transport variation in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas, where a factor of 2 decrease in electron heat flux is observed after the cessation of the RF heating. Thus, identifying the regime of validity of the gradient-driven assumption is essential for first-principle gyrokinetic simulation. This understanding will help us to more confidently predict the confinement performance of ITER and future magnetic confinement devices.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  4. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  5. Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1616946
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1777994
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466; AC02-76CH03073; FG03-95ER54295; FG03-99ER54518; FG02-99ER54518
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 60; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; turbulence; transport; tokamak; NSTX; electrostatic turbulence; gyrokinetic simulation; ion thermal transport; turbulence, transport, tokamak, NSTX, electrostatic turbulence, gyrokinetic simulation, ion thermal transport

Citation Formats

Ren, Y., Wang, W. X., Guttenfelder, W., Kaye, S. M., Ruiz-Ruiz, J., Ethier, S., Bell, R., LeBlanc, B. P., Mazzucato, E., Smith, D. R., Domier, C. W., and Yuh, H. Exploring the regime of validity of global gyrokinetic simulations with spherical tokamak plasmas. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab5bf5.
Ren, Y., Wang, W. X., Guttenfelder, W., Kaye, S. M., Ruiz-Ruiz, J., Ethier, S., Bell, R., LeBlanc, B. P., Mazzucato, E., Smith, D. R., Domier, C. W., & Yuh, H. Exploring the regime of validity of global gyrokinetic simulations with spherical tokamak plasmas. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab5bf5
Ren, Y., Wang, W. X., Guttenfelder, W., Kaye, S. M., Ruiz-Ruiz, J., Ethier, S., Bell, R., LeBlanc, B. P., Mazzucato, E., Smith, D. R., Domier, C. W., and Yuh, H. Wed . "Exploring the regime of validity of global gyrokinetic simulations with spherical tokamak plasmas". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab5bf5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1616946.
@article{osti_1616946,
title = {Exploring the regime of validity of global gyrokinetic simulations with spherical tokamak plasmas},
author = {Ren, Y. and Wang, W. X. and Guttenfelder, W. and Kaye, S. M. and Ruiz-Ruiz, J. and Ethier, S. and Bell, R. and LeBlanc, B. P. and Mazzucato, E. and Smith, D. R. and Domier, C. W. and Yuh, H.},
abstractNote = {Plasma turbulence is considered one of the main mechanisms for driving anomalous thermal transport in magnetic confinement fusion devices. Based on first-principle model, gradient driven gyrokinetic simulations have often been used to explain turbulence-driven transport in present fusion devices, and in fact, many present predictive codes are based on the assumption that turbulence is gradient-driven. However, using the electrostatic global particle-in-cell gyrokinetic tokamak simulation (GTS) code (Wang et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 072511), we will show that while global gradient-driven gyrokinetic simulations provide decent agreement in ion thermal transport with a set of NBI-heated NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) H-mode plasmas, they are not able to explain the observed electron thermal transport variation in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas, where a factor of 2 decrease in electron heat flux is observed after the cessation of the RF heating. Thus, identifying the regime of validity of the gradient-driven assumption is essential for first-principle gyrokinetic simulation. This understanding will help us to more confidently predict the confinement performance of ITER and future magnetic confinement devices.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/ab5bf5},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 2,
volume = 60,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Measurements of the cross-phase angle between density and electron temperature fluctuations and comparison with gyrokinetic simulations
journal, May 2010

  • White, A. E.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3323084

The E × B staircase of magnetised plasmas
journal, April 2017


Microinstability theory in tokamaks
journal, August 1978


Finding the Elusive E × B Staircase in Magnetized Plasmas
journal, February 2015


Collisionless electron temperature gradient instability
journal, January 1987

  • Lee, Y. C.; Dong, J. Q.; Guzdar, P. N.
  • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 30, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.866248

Finite-β simulation of microinstabilities
journal, February 2014

  • Startsev, Edward A.; Lee, W. W.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4863847

Stabilization of electron-scale turbulence by electron density gradient in national spherical torus experiment
journal, December 2015

  • Ruiz Ruiz, J.; Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4936110

Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport
journal, March 2010


Identification of new turbulence contributions to plasma transport and confinement in spherical tokamak regime
journal, October 2015

  • Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S.; Ren, Y.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4933216

Theory of the ubiquitous mode
journal, October 1977


Overview of the physics and engineering design of NSTX upgrade
conference, June 2011

  • Menard, J.; Caniky, J.; Chrzanowski, J.
  • 2011 IEEE 24th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE), 2011 IEEE/NPSS 24th Symposium on Fusion Engineering
  • DOI: 10.1109/SOFE.2011.6052355

Experimental study of parametric dependence of electron-scale turbulence in a spherical tokamak
journal, May 2012

  • Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4719689

The first transport code simulations using the trapped gyro-Landau-fluid model
journal, May 2008

  • Kinsey, J. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Waltz, R. E.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2889008

Tokamak edge turbulence: background theory and computation
journal, June 2007


On the validity of the local diffusive paradigm in turbulent plasma transport
journal, August 2010


Study of ion turbulent transport and profile formations using global gyrokinetic full- f Vlasov simulation
journal, May 2009


Microtearing Modes and Anomalous Transport in Tokamaks
journal, April 1980


Cross-Scale Interactions between Electron and Ion Scale Turbulence in a Tokamak Plasma
journal, June 2015


Tokamak Heat Transport Due to Tearing Modes
journal, July 1976


Advances in validating gyrokinetic turbulence models against L- and H-mode plasmas
journal, May 2011

  • Holland, C.; Schmitz, L.; Rhodes, T. L.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 18, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3574518

Kinetic-ballooning-mode theory in general geometry
journal, November 1980


Large scale dynamics in flux driven gyrokinetic turbulence
journal, April 2010


Plasma size and power scaling of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence
journal, February 2014

  • Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4867379

Confinement and local transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
journal, June 2007


Nonlinear flow generation by electrostatic turbulence in tokamaks
journal, July 2010

  • Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3459096

Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak plasmas: enhanced heat loss due to cross-scale coupling of plasma turbulence
journal, December 2015


Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence
journal, December 2000


High-Harmonic Fast-Wave heating in NSTX
conference, January 2001

  • LeBlanc, B. P.
  • RADIO FREQUENCY POWER IN PLASMAS:14th Topical Conference, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1424147

Anomalous Transport Scaling in the DIII-D Tokamak Matched by Supercomputer Simulation
journal, July 2003


Carbon ion plume emission produced by charge exchange with neutral beams on National Spherical Torus Experiment
journal, October 2006

  • Bell, Ronald E.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2217012

Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device
journal, March 2000


Studies of turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod H-mode plasmas with phase contrast imaging and comparisons with GYRO
journal, January 2009

  • Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E. M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3057420

Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment
journal, November 2015

  • Ren, Y.; Wang, W. X.; LeBlanc, B. P.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4935113

Comparison of initial value and eigenvalue codes for kinetic toroidal plasma instabilities
journal, August 1995


Comparison of gradient and flux driven gyro-kinetic turbulent transport
journal, May 2016

  • Rath, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Buchholz, R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4952621

Validation in fusion research: Towards guidelines and best practices
journal, June 2008

  • Terry, P. W.; Greenwald, M.; Leboeuf, J. -N.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2928909

Ion temperature gradient turbulence simulations and plasma flux surface shape
journal, November 1999

  • Waltz, R. E.; Miller, R. L.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.873694

Full f gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport
journal, May 2008

  • Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.
  • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 227, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2008.02.013

Bootstrap current and neoclassical transport in tokamaks of arbitrary collisionality and aspect ratio
journal, September 1997

  • Houlberg, W. A.; Shaing, K. C.; Hirshman, S. P.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 4, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.872465

Electromagnetic Transport from Microtearing Mode Turbulence
journal, April 2011


A collective scattering system for measuring electron gyroscale fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment
journal, December 2008

  • Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 79, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3039415

Ion temperature gradient turbulence close to the finite heat flux threshold
journal, October 2017

  • Weikl, A.; Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4986035

Nonlocal properties of gyrokinetic turbulence and the role of E×B flow shear
journal, July 2007

  • Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Lee, W. W.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2750647

Gradient-driven flux-tube simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence close to the non-linear threshold
journal, August 2016

  • Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4961231

Trapped particles in toroidal magnetic systems
journal, January 1971


Gyrokinetic full-torus simulations of ohmic tokamak plasmas in circular limiter configuration
journal, June 2016