skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The ePix10k 2-megapixel hard X-ray detector at LCLS

Abstract

The ePix10ka2M (ePix10k) is a new large area detector specifically developed for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) applications. The hybrid pixel detector was developed at SLAC to provide a hard X-ray area detector with a high dynamic range, running at the 120 Hz repetition rate of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The ePix10k consists of 16 modules, each with 352 × 384 pixels of 100 µm × 100 µm distributed on four ASICs, resulting in a 2.16 megapixel detector, with a 16.5 cm × 16.5 cm active area and ~80% coverage. The high dynamic range is achieved with three distinct gain settings (low, medium, high) as well as two auto-ranging modes (high-to-low and medium-to-low). Here the three fixed gain modes are evaluated. The resulting dynamic range (from single photon counting to 10000 photons pixel⁻1pulse⁻1at 8 keV) makes it suitable for a large number of different XFEL experiments. The ePix10k replaces the large CSPAD in operation since 2011. The dimensions of the two detectors are similar, making the upgrade from CSPAD to ePix10k straightforward for most setups, with the ePix10k improving on experimental performance. The SLAC-developed ePix cameras all utilize a similar platform, are tailored to target different experimental conditions andmore » are designed to provide an upgrade path for future high-repetition-rate XFELs. Here the first measurements on this new ePix10k detector are presented and the performance under typical XFEL conditions evaluated during an LCLS X-ray diffuse scattering experiment measuring the 9.5 keV X-ray photons scattered from a thin liquid jet.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1616490
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1632653
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online) Journal Volume: 27 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1600-5775
Publisher:
International Union of Crystallography
Country of Publication:
Denmark
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; XFEL; detector; detector non-linearity; diffuse scattering

Citation Formats

van Driel, Tim Brandt, Nelson, Silke, Armenta, Rebecca, Blaj, Gabriel, Boo, Stephen, Boutet, Sébastien, Doering, Dionisio, Dragone, Angelo, Hart, Philip, Haller, Gunther, Kenney, Christopher, Kwaitowski, Maciej, Manger, Leo, McKelvey, Mark, Nakahara, Kaz, Oriunno, Marco, Sato, Takahiro, and Weaver, Matt. The ePix10k 2-megapixel hard X-ray detector at LCLS. Denmark: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1107/S1600577520004257.
van Driel, Tim Brandt, Nelson, Silke, Armenta, Rebecca, Blaj, Gabriel, Boo, Stephen, Boutet, Sébastien, Doering, Dionisio, Dragone, Angelo, Hart, Philip, Haller, Gunther, Kenney, Christopher, Kwaitowski, Maciej, Manger, Leo, McKelvey, Mark, Nakahara, Kaz, Oriunno, Marco, Sato, Takahiro, & Weaver, Matt. The ePix10k 2-megapixel hard X-ray detector at LCLS. Denmark. doi:https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520004257
van Driel, Tim Brandt, Nelson, Silke, Armenta, Rebecca, Blaj, Gabriel, Boo, Stephen, Boutet, Sébastien, Doering, Dionisio, Dragone, Angelo, Hart, Philip, Haller, Gunther, Kenney, Christopher, Kwaitowski, Maciej, Manger, Leo, McKelvey, Mark, Nakahara, Kaz, Oriunno, Marco, Sato, Takahiro, and Weaver, Matt. Fri . "The ePix10k 2-megapixel hard X-ray detector at LCLS". Denmark. doi:https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520004257.
@article{osti_1616490,
title = {The ePix10k 2-megapixel hard X-ray detector at LCLS},
author = {van Driel, Tim Brandt and Nelson, Silke and Armenta, Rebecca and Blaj, Gabriel and Boo, Stephen and Boutet, Sébastien and Doering, Dionisio and Dragone, Angelo and Hart, Philip and Haller, Gunther and Kenney, Christopher and Kwaitowski, Maciej and Manger, Leo and McKelvey, Mark and Nakahara, Kaz and Oriunno, Marco and Sato, Takahiro and Weaver, Matt},
abstractNote = {The ePix10ka2M (ePix10k) is a new large area detector specifically developed for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) applications. The hybrid pixel detector was developed at SLAC to provide a hard X-ray area detector with a high dynamic range, running at the 120 Hz repetition rate of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The ePix10k consists of 16 modules, each with 352 × 384 pixels of 100 µm × 100 µm distributed on four ASICs, resulting in a 2.16 megapixel detector, with a 16.5 cm × 16.5 cm active area and ~80% coverage. The high dynamic range is achieved with three distinct gain settings (low, medium, high) as well as two auto-ranging modes (high-to-low and medium-to-low). Here the three fixed gain modes are evaluated. The resulting dynamic range (from single photon counting to 10000 photons pixel⁻1pulse⁻1at 8 keV) makes it suitable for a large number of different XFEL experiments. The ePix10k replaces the large CSPAD in operation since 2011. The dimensions of the two detectors are similar, making the upgrade from CSPAD to ePix10k straightforward for most setups, with the ePix10k improving on experimental performance. The SLAC-developed ePix cameras all utilize a similar platform, are tailored to target different experimental conditions and are designed to provide an upgrade path for future high-repetition-rate XFELs. Here the first measurements on this new ePix10k detector are presented and the performance under typical XFEL conditions evaluated during an LCLS X-ray diffuse scattering experiment measuring the 9.5 keV X-ray photons scattered from a thin liquid jet.},
doi = {10.1107/S1600577520004257},
journal = {Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)},
number = 3,
volume = 27,
place = {Denmark},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520004257

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Ultrafast X-Ray Scattering Measurements of Coherent Structural Dynamics on the Ground-State Potential Energy Surface of a Diplatinum Molecule
journal, February 2019


The CSPAD megapixel x-ray camera at LCLS
conference, October 2012

  • Hart, Philip; Boutet, Sébastien; Carini, Gabriella
  • SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.930924

Initial metal–metal bond breakage detected by fs X-ray scattering in the photolysis of Ru 3 (CO) 12 in cyclohexane at 400 nm
journal, January 2019

  • Kong, Q. Y.; Laursen, M. G.; Haldrup, K.
  • Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8PP00420J

Linac Coherent Light Source: The first five years
journal, March 2016


AGIPD, a high dynamic range fast detector for the European XFEL
journal, January 2015


X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, April 2015

  • Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515005317

Experience with the CSPAD during dedicated detector runs at LCLS
journal, March 2014


Correction of complex nonlinear signal response from a pixel array detector
journal, April 2015

  • van Driel, Tim Brandt; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515005536

Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments
journal, September 2011

  • Philipp, Hugh T.; Hromalik, Marianne; Tate, Mark
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 649, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.11.189

Artifact reduction in the CSPAD detectors used for LCLS experiments
journal, August 2017


The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, April 2015

  • Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515005135

Data systems for the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, July 2016


The X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, April 2015

  • Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Caronna, Chiara; Chollet, Matthieu
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515004397

First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser
journal, August 2010


Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, June 2014

  • Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 6, Article No. 063106
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4880724

Finding intersections between electronic excited state potential energy surfaces with simultaneous ultrafast X-ray scattering and spectroscopy
journal, January 2019

  • Kjær, Kasper S.; Van Driel, Tim B.; Harlang, Tobias C. B.
  • Chemical Science, Vol. 10, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8SC04023K

Atomistic characterization of the active-site solvation dynamics of a model photocatalyst
journal, November 2016

  • van Driel, Tim B.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Hartsock, Robert W.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13678

CSPAD-140k: A versatile detector for LCLS experiments
journal, August 2013

  • Herrmann, Sven; Boutet, Sébastien; Duda, Brian
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 718
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.01.057

Linac Coherent Light Source data analysis using psana
journal, March 2016

  • Damiani, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Gaponenko, I.
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 49, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600576716004349

Femtosecond X-Ray Scattering Study of Ultrafast Photoinduced Structural Dynamics in Solvated [ Co ( terpy ) 2 ] 2 +
journal, June 2016


Disentangling detector data in XFEL studies of temporally resolved solution state chemistry
journal, January 2015

  • van Driel, Tim Brandt; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Biasin, Elisa
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 177
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00203B

Characterization results of the JUNGFRAU full scale readout ASIC
journal, February 2016