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Title: Dark Energy Survey identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus at redshift 0.823 from optical variability

Abstract

ABSTRACT We report the identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus (AGN), DES J0218–0430, in a redshift z = 0.823 galaxy in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Supernova field. We select DES J0218–0430 as an AGN candidate by characterizing its long-term optical variability alone based on DES optical broad-band light curves spanning over 6 yr. An archival optical spectrum from the fourth phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows both broad Mg ii and broad H β lines, confirming its nature as a broad-line AGN. Archival XMM–Newton X-ray observations suggest an intrinsic hard X-ray luminosity of $$L_{{\rm 2-12\, keV}}\approx 7.6\pm 0.4\times 10^{43}$$ erg s-1, which exceeds those of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies, in support of an AGN driving the optical variability. Based on the broad H β from SDSS spectrum, we estimate a virial black hole (BH) mass of M• ≈ 106.43-106.72 M⊙ (with the error denoting the systematic uncertainty from different calibrations), consistent with the estimation from OzDES, making it the lowest mass AGN with redshift > 0.4 detected in optical. We estimate the host galaxy stellar mass to be M* ≈ 1010.5 ± 0.3 M⊙ based on modelling the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. DES J0218–0430 extends the M•–M* relation observed in luminous AGNs at z ~ 1 to masses lower than being probed by previous work. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of using optical variability to identify low-mass AGNs at higher redshift in deeper synoptic surveys with direct implications for the upcoming Legacy Survey of Space and Time at Vera C. Rubin Observatory.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [1];  [13];  [14] more »;  [11];  [15];  [10];  [16];  [17];  [8];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [14];  [7];  [21];  [17];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [6];  [14];  [1];  [25];  [26];  [14];  [27];  [28];  [29];  [30];  [31];  [11];  [7];  [32];  [18];  [33];  [34];  [4];  [35];  [5];  [32];  [4];  [36] « less
  1. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA;National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  2. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  3. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  4. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia
  5. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  6. Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo, SP 05314-970, Brazil;Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  7. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  8. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
  9. CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France;Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris, France
  10. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  11. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain
  12. INAF, Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
  13. INAF– Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy;Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, Via Beirut 2, I-34014 Trieste, Italy
  14. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil;Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  15. Department of Physics, IIT Hyderabad, Kandi, Telangana 502285, India
  16. Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA;Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  17. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  18. Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), E-08034 Barcelona, Spain;Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
  19. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA;Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  20. Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA;Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, P. O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA;SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  21. School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
  22. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA;Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  23. Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  24. Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia;Lowell Observatory, 1400 Mars Hill Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA
  25. Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain;Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  26. Universités Clermont Auvergne, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
  27. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA;Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  28. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA;Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  29. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  30. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK
  31. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, P. O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA;SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  32. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  33. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  34. Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
  35. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  36. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Universitäts-Sternwarte, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Scheinerstr 1, D-81679 München, Germany
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1616310
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1659585; OSTI ID: 1784658
Report Number(s):
arXiv:2003.10457; FERMILAB-PUB-20-103-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; oai:inspirehep.net:1787888
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AST-1715579; SC0019193; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 496; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; black hole physics; galaxies: active; galaxies: high-redshift; galaxies: nuclei; quasars: general; surveys

Citation Formats

Guo, Hengxiao, Burke, Colin J., Liu, Xin, Phadke, Kedar A., Zhang, Kaiwen, Chen, Yu-Ching, Gruendl, Robert A., Lidman, Christopher, Shen, Yue, Morganson, Eric, Aguena, Michel, Allam, Sahar, Avila, Santiago, Bertin, Emmanuel, Brooks, David, Rosell, Aurelio Carnero, Carollo, Daniela, Kind, Matias Carrasco, Costanzi, Matteo, da Costa, Luiz N., De Vicente, Juan, Desai, Shantanu, Doel, Peter, Eifler, Tim F., Everett, Spencer, García-Bellido, Juan, Gaztanaga, Enrique, Gerdes, David W., Gruen, Daniel, Gschwend, Julia, Gutierrez, Gaston, Hinton, Samuel R., Hollowood, Devon L., Honscheid, Klaus, James, David J., Kuehn, Kyler, Lima, Marcos, Maia, Marcio G., Menanteau, Felipe, Miquel, Ramon, Möller, Anais, Ogando, Ricardo C., Palmese, Antonella, Paz-Chinchón, Francisco, Plazas, Andrés A., Romer, Anita K., Roodman, Aaron, Sanchez, Eusebio, Scarpine, Vic, Schubnell, Michael, Serrano, Santiago, Smith, Mathew, Soares-Santos, Marcelle, Sommer, Natalia E., Suchyta, Eric, Swanson, Molly C., Tarle, Gregory, Tucker, Brad E., and Varga, Tamas N. Dark Energy Survey identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus at redshift 0.823 from optical variability. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1803.
Guo, Hengxiao, Burke, Colin J., Liu, Xin, Phadke, Kedar A., Zhang, Kaiwen, Chen, Yu-Ching, Gruendl, Robert A., Lidman, Christopher, Shen, Yue, Morganson, Eric, Aguena, Michel, Allam, Sahar, Avila, Santiago, Bertin, Emmanuel, Brooks, David, Rosell, Aurelio Carnero, Carollo, Daniela, Kind, Matias Carrasco, Costanzi, Matteo, da Costa, Luiz N., De Vicente, Juan, Desai, Shantanu, Doel, Peter, Eifler, Tim F., Everett, Spencer, García-Bellido, Juan, Gaztanaga, Enrique, Gerdes, David W., Gruen, Daniel, Gschwend, Julia, Gutierrez, Gaston, Hinton, Samuel R., Hollowood, Devon L., Honscheid, Klaus, James, David J., Kuehn, Kyler, Lima, Marcos, Maia, Marcio G., Menanteau, Felipe, Miquel, Ramon, Möller, Anais, Ogando, Ricardo C., Palmese, Antonella, Paz-Chinchón, Francisco, Plazas, Andrés A., Romer, Anita K., Roodman, Aaron, Sanchez, Eusebio, Scarpine, Vic, Schubnell, Michael, Serrano, Santiago, Smith, Mathew, Soares-Santos, Marcelle, Sommer, Natalia E., Suchyta, Eric, Swanson, Molly C., Tarle, Gregory, Tucker, Brad E., & Varga, Tamas N. Dark Energy Survey identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus at redshift 0.823 from optical variability. United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1803
Guo, Hengxiao, Burke, Colin J., Liu, Xin, Phadke, Kedar A., Zhang, Kaiwen, Chen, Yu-Ching, Gruendl, Robert A., Lidman, Christopher, Shen, Yue, Morganson, Eric, Aguena, Michel, Allam, Sahar, Avila, Santiago, Bertin, Emmanuel, Brooks, David, Rosell, Aurelio Carnero, Carollo, Daniela, Kind, Matias Carrasco, Costanzi, Matteo, da Costa, Luiz N., De Vicente, Juan, Desai, Shantanu, Doel, Peter, Eifler, Tim F., Everett, Spencer, García-Bellido, Juan, Gaztanaga, Enrique, Gerdes, David W., Gruen, Daniel, Gschwend, Julia, Gutierrez, Gaston, Hinton, Samuel R., Hollowood, Devon L., Honscheid, Klaus, James, David J., Kuehn, Kyler, Lima, Marcos, Maia, Marcio G., Menanteau, Felipe, Miquel, Ramon, Möller, Anais, Ogando, Ricardo C., Palmese, Antonella, Paz-Chinchón, Francisco, Plazas, Andrés A., Romer, Anita K., Roodman, Aaron, Sanchez, Eusebio, Scarpine, Vic, Schubnell, Michael, Serrano, Santiago, Smith, Mathew, Soares-Santos, Marcelle, Sommer, Natalia E., Suchyta, Eric, Swanson, Molly C., Tarle, Gregory, Tucker, Brad E., and Varga, Tamas N. Tue . "Dark Energy Survey identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus at redshift 0.823 from optical variability". United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1803. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1616310.
@article{osti_1616310,
title = {Dark Energy Survey identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus at redshift 0.823 from optical variability},
author = {Guo, Hengxiao and Burke, Colin J. and Liu, Xin and Phadke, Kedar A. and Zhang, Kaiwen and Chen, Yu-Ching and Gruendl, Robert A. and Lidman, Christopher and Shen, Yue and Morganson, Eric and Aguena, Michel and Allam, Sahar and Avila, Santiago and Bertin, Emmanuel and Brooks, David and Rosell, Aurelio Carnero and Carollo, Daniela and Kind, Matias Carrasco and Costanzi, Matteo and da Costa, Luiz N. and De Vicente, Juan and Desai, Shantanu and Doel, Peter and Eifler, Tim F. and Everett, Spencer and García-Bellido, Juan and Gaztanaga, Enrique and Gerdes, David W. and Gruen, Daniel and Gschwend, Julia and Gutierrez, Gaston and Hinton, Samuel R. and Hollowood, Devon L. and Honscheid, Klaus and James, David J. and Kuehn, Kyler and Lima, Marcos and Maia, Marcio G. and Menanteau, Felipe and Miquel, Ramon and Möller, Anais and Ogando, Ricardo C. and Palmese, Antonella and Paz-Chinchón, Francisco and Plazas, Andrés A. and Romer, Anita K. and Roodman, Aaron and Sanchez, Eusebio and Scarpine, Vic and Schubnell, Michael and Serrano, Santiago and Smith, Mathew and Soares-Santos, Marcelle and Sommer, Natalia E. and Suchyta, Eric and Swanson, Molly C. and Tarle, Gregory and Tucker, Brad E. and Varga, Tamas N.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We report the identification of a low-mass active galactic nucleus (AGN), DES J0218–0430, in a redshift z = 0.823 galaxy in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Supernova field. We select DES J0218–0430 as an AGN candidate by characterizing its long-term optical variability alone based on DES optical broad-band light curves spanning over 6 yr. An archival optical spectrum from the fourth phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows both broad Mg ii and broad H β lines, confirming its nature as a broad-line AGN. Archival XMM–Newton X-ray observations suggest an intrinsic hard X-ray luminosity of $L_{{\rm 2-12\, keV}}\approx 7.6\pm 0.4\times 10^{43}$ erg s-1, which exceeds those of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies, in support of an AGN driving the optical variability. Based on the broad H β from SDSS spectrum, we estimate a virial black hole (BH) mass of M• ≈ 106.43-106.72 M⊙ (with the error denoting the systematic uncertainty from different calibrations), consistent with the estimation from OzDES, making it the lowest mass AGN with redshift > 0.4 detected in optical. We estimate the host galaxy stellar mass to be M* ≈ 1010.5 ± 0.3 M⊙ based on modelling the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. DES J0218–0430 extends the M•–M* relation observed in luminous AGNs at z ~ 1 to masses lower than being probed by previous work. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of using optical variability to identify low-mass AGNs at higher redshift in deeper synoptic surveys with direct implications for the upcoming Legacy Survey of Space and Time at Vera C. Rubin Observatory.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/staa1803},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 496,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

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Identifying AGNs in Low-mass Galaxies via Long-term Optical Variability
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Faint high-redshift AGN in the Chandra deep field south: the evolution of the AGN luminosity function and black hole demography
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OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: 3-yr results and first data release
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The Optical Variability of sdss Quasars from Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy. i. Results from 60 Quasars with ⩾ Six-Epoch Spectra
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The Sdss-Iv Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Overview and Early data
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Formation of Massive Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters. I. Mass Segregation and Core Collapse
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Radio jets from AGNs in dwarf galaxies in the COSMOS survey: mechanical feedback out to redshift ∼3.4
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Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping the Milky Way, Nearby Galaxies, and the Distant Universe
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Theoretical Modeling of Starburst Galaxies
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Optimal Time-Series Selection of Quasars
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A New Sample of Low‐Mass Black Holes in Active Galaxies
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The cosmological evolution of quasar black hole masses
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Hot Dust in Panchromatic SED Fitting: Identification of Active Galactic Nuclei and Improved Galaxy Properties
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The dark Energy Camera
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Constraining the properties of AGN host galaxies with spectral energy distribution modelling
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Introducing the Search for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Nearby Galaxies (SIBLING) Survey
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Are the Variations in Quasar Optical flux Driven by Thermal Fluctuations?
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A New Sample of (Wandering) Massive Black Holes in Dwarf Galaxies from High-resolution Radio Observations
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A Catalog of Quasar Properties from Sloan Digital sky Survey data Release 7
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The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star‐forming Galaxies
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X-RAY DETECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN DWARF GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 1
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Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Emission-Line Profiles of Quasars: Implications for Black hole mass Determination
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The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: H α and H β Reverberation Measurements from First-year Spectroscopy and Photometry
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The formation of nuclei in newly formed galaxies and the evolution of the quasar population
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Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. X. Optical Variability Characteristics
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OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results
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Infrared Selection of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field
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Long-term NIR variability in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey: a new probe of AGN activity at high redshift
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A Population of Bona Fide Intermediate-mass Black Holes Identified as Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei
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Crossing the Line: Active Galactic Nuclei in the Star-forming Region of the BPT Diagram
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Active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 1.5 – II. Black hole mass estimation by means of broad emission lines
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Formation of supermassive black holes by direct collapse in pre-galactic haloes
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Cigalemc: Galaxy Parameter Estimation Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach with Cigale
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Optically variable AGN in the three-year VST survey of the COSMOS field
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The Difference Imaging Pipeline for the Transient Search in the dark Energy Survey
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Dwarf galaxies might not be the birth sites of supermassive black holes
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Dependence of the Optical/Ultraviolet Variability on the Emission-Line Properties and Eddington Ratio in Active Galactic Nuclei
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The QUEST–La Silla AGN Variability Survey: Connection between AGN Variability and Black Hole Physical Properties
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An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5
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The Mass Relations between Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies at 1 < z < 2 with HST -WFC3
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Absolute Spectral Energy Distributions for White Dwarfs
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The Sloan Digital sky Survey Quasar Catalog. v. Seventh data Release
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Observational evidence for intermediate-mass black holes
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Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey
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