DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Perspectives on the Future of Land Surface Models and the Challenges of Representing Complex Terrestrial Systems

Abstract

Land surface models (LSMs) are a vital tool for understanding, projecting, and predicting the dynamics of the land surface and its role within the Earth system, under global change. Driven by the need to address a set of key questions, LSMs have grown in complexity from simplified representations of land surface biophysics to encompass a broad set of interrelated processes spanning the disciplines of biophysics, biogeochemistry, hydrology, ecosystem ecology, community ecology, human management, and societal impacts. This vast scope and complexity, while warranted by the problems LSMs are designed to solve, has led to enormous challenges in understanding and attributing differences between LSM predictions. Meanwhile, the wide range of spatial scales that govern land surface heterogeneity, and the broad spectrum of timescales in land surface dynamics, create challenges in tractably representing processes in LSMs. We identify three “grand challenges” in the development and use of LSMs, based around these issues: managing process complexity, representing land surface heterogeneity, and understanding parametric dynamics across the broad set of problems asked of LSMs in a changing world. In this review, we discuss progress that has been made, as well as promising directions forward, for each of these challenges.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Climate and Global Dynamics DivisionNational Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder CO USA; Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique Toulouse France
  2. Climate and Ecosystem Sciences DivisionLawrence Berkeley National Lab Berkeley CA USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1615411
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1615412; OSTI ID: 1635186
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; 1852977
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems Journal Volume: 12 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; land surface models; terrestrial biosphere; tiling scheme; heterogeneity; complexity; parametric dynamics

Citation Formats

Fisher, Rosie A., and Koven, Charles D. Perspectives on the Future of Land Surface Models and the Challenges of Representing Complex Terrestrial Systems. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1029/2018MS001453.
Fisher, Rosie A., & Koven, Charles D. Perspectives on the Future of Land Surface Models and the Challenges of Representing Complex Terrestrial Systems. United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001453
Fisher, Rosie A., and Koven, Charles D. Wed . "Perspectives on the Future of Land Surface Models and the Challenges of Representing Complex Terrestrial Systems". United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001453.
@article{osti_1615411,
title = {Perspectives on the Future of Land Surface Models and the Challenges of Representing Complex Terrestrial Systems},
author = {Fisher, Rosie A. and Koven, Charles D.},
abstractNote = {Land surface models (LSMs) are a vital tool for understanding, projecting, and predicting the dynamics of the land surface and its role within the Earth system, under global change. Driven by the need to address a set of key questions, LSMs have grown in complexity from simplified representations of land surface biophysics to encompass a broad set of interrelated processes spanning the disciplines of biophysics, biogeochemistry, hydrology, ecosystem ecology, community ecology, human management, and societal impacts. This vast scope and complexity, while warranted by the problems LSMs are designed to solve, has led to enormous challenges in understanding and attributing differences between LSM predictions. Meanwhile, the wide range of spatial scales that govern land surface heterogeneity, and the broad spectrum of timescales in land surface dynamics, create challenges in tractably representing processes in LSMs. We identify three “grand challenges” in the development and use of LSMs, based around these issues: managing process complexity, representing land surface heterogeneity, and understanding parametric dynamics across the broad set of problems asked of LSMs in a changing world. In this review, we discuss progress that has been made, as well as promising directions forward, for each of these challenges.},
doi = {10.1029/2018MS001453},
journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
number = 4,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001453

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: A schematic depiction of the evolution of land surface model process representation through time, representing the approximate timing of emergence of different model components as commonly employed features of Earth system models. Note that all modeling groups follow a different pathway and that this diagram is primarily intendedmore » to act as an illustration of increasing complexity through time.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Permafrost carbon−climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics
journal, March 2015

  • Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1415123112

Assessing uncertainties in a second-generation dynamic vegetation model caused by ecological scale limitations
journal, July 2010


Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model
journal, February 2003


Using ecosystem experiments to improve vegetation models
journal, May 2015

  • Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke; De Kauwe, Martin G.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2621

A hybrid‐3D hillslope hydrological model for use in E arth system models
journal, October 2015

  • Hazenberg, P.; Fang, Y.; Broxton, P.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 51, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016842

Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization
journal, January 2016

  • Eyring, Veronika; Bony, Sandrine; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016

Parametric Controls on Vegetation Responses to Biogeochemical Forcing in the CLM5
journal, September 2019

  • Fisher, Rosie A.; Wieder, William R.; Sanderson, Benjamin M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001609

The response of an Eastern Amazonian rain forest to drought stress: results and modelling analyses from a throughfall exclusion experiment
journal, November 2007


Evaluating the performance of land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 on water and energy flux estimation with a single- and multi-layer energy budget scheme
journal, January 2016

  • Chen, Yiying; Ryder, James; Bastrikov, Vladislav
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-2951-2016

Acclimation and adaptation components of the temperature dependence of plant photosynthesis at the global scale
journal, February 2019

  • Kumarathunge, Dushan P.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Drake, John E.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 222, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.15668

Incorporating phosphorus cycling into global modeling efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor
journal, June 2015

  • Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 208, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.13521

Iterative near-term ecological forecasting: Needs, opportunities, and challenges
journal, January 2018

  • Dietze, Michael C.; Fox, Andrew; Beck-Johnson, Lindsay M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710231115

Modelling tropical forest responses to drought and El Niño with a stomatal optimization model based on xylem hydraulics
journal, October 2018

  • Eller, Cleiton B.; Rowland, Lucy; Oliveira, Rafael S.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 373, Issue 1760
  • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2017.0315

Global photosynthetic capacity is optimized to the environment
journal, January 2019

  • Smith, Nicholas G.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Colin Prentice, I.
  • Ecology Letters, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/ele.13210

Mechanisms of Maintenance of Species Diversity
journal, November 2000


Climate, ecosystems, and planetary futures: The challenge to predict life in Earth system models
journal, February 2018


An individual-based forest model to jointly simulate carbon and tree diversity in Amazonia: description and applications
journal, September 2017

  • Maréchaux, Isabelle; Chave, Jérôme
  • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 87, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/ecm.1271

Terrestrial Gross Carbon Dioxide Uptake: Global Distribution and Covariation with Climate
journal, July 2010


Scaling Contagious Disturbance: A Spatially-Implicit Dynamic Model
journal, March 2019


Resolving terrestrial ecosystem processes along a subgrid topographic gradient for an earth-system model
journal, January 2014

  • Subin, Z. M.; Milly, P. C. D.; Sulman, B. N.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.5194/hessd-11-8443-2014

A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes
journal, January 2015

  • Naudts, K.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M. J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-2035-2015

Impact of large-scale climate extremes on biospheric carbon fluxes: An intercomparison based on MsTMIP data
journal, June 2014

  • Zscheischler, Jakob; Michalak, Anna M.; Schwalm, Christopher
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 28, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004826

Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: The insurance hypothesis
journal, February 1999

  • Yachi, S.; Loreau, M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 96, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.96.4.1463

Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis and transpiration
journal, August 1985


Evidence from Amazonian forests is consistent with isohydric control of leaf water potential
journal, February 2006


A physically motivated index of subgrid-scale pattern
journal, January 2006

  • Jupp, Tim E.; Twiss, Sean D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue D19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007343

Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance: RECONCILING OPTIMAL AND EMPIRICAL STOMATAL MODELS
journal, January 2011


Development and Verification of a Numerical Library for Solving Global Terrestrial Multiphysics Problems
journal, June 2019

  • Bisht, Gautam; Riley, William J.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001560

The importance of tree demography and root water uptake for modelling the carbon and water cycles of Amazonia
journal, July 2018

  • Joetzjer, Emilie; Maignan, Fabienne; Chave, Jérôme
  • Biogeosciences Discussions
  • DOI: 10.5194/bg-2018-308

A fully traits-based approach to modeling global vegetation distribution
journal, September 2014

  • van Bodegom, P. M.; Douma, J. C.; Verheijen, L. M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 38
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1304551110

Limiting the parameter space in the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS)
journal, January 2014

  • Kemp, S.; Scholze, M.; Ziehn, T.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, Issue 4, p. 1609-1619
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-1609-2014

Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model
journal, October 2008

  • Purves, D. W.; Lichstein, J. W.; Strigul, N.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0807754105

Closing the scale gap between land surface parameterizations and GCMs with a new scheme, SiB3-Bins: SOIL MOISTURE SCALE GAP
journal, March 2017

  • Baker, I. T.; Sellers, P. J.; Denning, A. S.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000764

Towards a universal model for carbon dioxide uptake by plants
journal, September 2017


Environmental drivers of drought deciduous phenology in the Community Land Model
journal, January 2015


Multitrait successional forest dynamics enable diverse competitive coexistence
journal, March 2017

  • Falster, Daniel S.; Brännström, Åke; Westoby, Mark
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610206114

Vegetation demographics in Earth System Models: A review of progress and priorities
journal, October 2017

  • Fisher, Rosie A.; Koven, Charles D.; Anderegg, William R. L.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13910

A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models
journal, November 2016

  • Rogers, Alistair; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 213, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14283

Optimisation of photosynthetic carbon gain and within-canopy gradients of associated foliar traits for Amazon forest trees
journal, January 2010


Seasonal patterns of CO 2 fluxes in Amazon forests: Fusion of eddy covariance data and the ORCHIDEE model
journal, January 2011

  • Verbeeck, Hans; Peylin, Philippe; Bacour, Cédric
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue G2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JG001544

How snowpack heterogeneity affects diurnal streamflow timing: SNOW VARIABILITY AND DIURNAL TIMING
journal, May 2005

  • Lundquist, Jessica D.; Dettinger, Michael D.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 41, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004WR003649

Parameter calibration and stomatal conductance formulation comparison for boreal forests with adaptive population importance sampler in the land surface model JSBACH
journal, January 2019

  • Mäkelä, Jarmo; Knauer, Jürgen; Aurela, Mika
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-12-4075-2019

Tree defence and bark beetles in a drying world: carbon partitioning, functioning and modelling
journal, September 2019

  • Huang, Jianbei; Kautz, Markus; Trowbridge, Amy M.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 225, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.16173

Divergence in land surface modeling: linking spread to structure
journal, October 2019

  • Schwalm, Christopher R.; Schaefer, Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B.
  • Environmental Research Communications, Vol. 1, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1088/2515-7620/ab4a8a

Trait-based representation of hydrological functional properties of plants in weather and ecosystem models
journal, February 2017

  • Matheny, Ashley M.; Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil
  • Plant Diversity, Vol. 39, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2016.10.001

Comparison of Radiative and Physiological Effects of Doubled Atmospheric CO2 on Climate
journal, March 1996


Prolongation of SMAP to Spatiotemporally Seamless Coverage of Continental U.S. Using a Deep Learning Neural Network
journal, November 2017

  • Fang, Kuai; Shen, Chaopeng; Kifer, Daniel
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075619

An Urban Parameterization for a Global Climate Model. Part I: Formulation and Evaluation for Two Cities
journal, April 2008

  • Oleson, K. W.; Bonan, G. B.; Feddema, J.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 47, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JAMC1597.1

Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models: REPRESENTING HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES IN EARTH SYSTEM MODELS
journal, August 2015

  • Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 51, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017096

Carbon–Concentration and Carbon–Climate Feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth System Models
journal, August 2013

  • Arora, Vivek K.; Boer, George J.; Friedlingstein, Pierre
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 26, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00494.1

Equilibrium forest demography explains the distribution of tree sizes across North America
journal, August 2018

  • Moore, Jonathan R.; Zhu, Kai; Huntingford, Chris
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aad6d1

A general ecophysiological framework for modelling the impact of pests and pathogens on forest ecosystems.
journal, August 2014

  • Dietze, Michael C.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala
  • Ecology Letters, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1111/ele.12345

Forest fine-root production and nitrogen use under elevated CO 2 : contrasting responses in evergreen and deciduous trees explained by a common principle
journal, January 2009


Improved representation of plant functional types and physiology in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES v4.2) using plant trait information
journal, January 2016

  • Harper, Anna B.; Cox, Peter M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-2415-2016

A numerical approach to calculating soil wetness and evapotranspiration over large grid areas
journal, January 2007

  • Sellers, P. J.; Fennessy, M. J.; Dickinson, R. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D18
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008781

Simulating Competition and Coexistence between Plant Functional Types in a Dynamic Vegetation Model
journal, May 2006

  • Arora, Vivek K.; Boer, George J.
  • Earth Interactions, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/EI170.1

Dimensionality Reduction for Complex Models via Bayesian Compressive Sensing
journal, January 2014


Regional and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems: Innovations, Challenges, and Prospects
journal, April 2019

  • Xia, Youlong; Hao, Zengchao; Shi, Chunxiang
  • Journal of Meteorological Research, Vol. 33, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-8172-4

Modeling canopy-induced turbulence in the Earth system: a unified parameterization of turbulent exchange within plant canopies and the roughness sublayer (CLM-ml v0)
journal, January 2018

  • Bonan, Gordon B.; Patton, Edward G.; Harman, Ian N.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-1467-2018

Thaw processes in ice-rich permafrost landscapes represented with laterally coupled tiles in a land surface model
journal, January 2019


Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2
journal, November 2014

  • Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2436

Earth system models of intermediate complexity: closing the gap in the spectrum of climate system models
journal, March 2002


Predicting vegetation type through physiological and environmental interactions with leaf traits: evergreen and deciduous forests in an earth system modeling framework
journal, November 2016

  • Weng, Ensheng; Farrior, Caroline E.; Dybzinski, Ray
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 23, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13542

Benchmarking and Process Diagnostics of Land Models
journal, November 2018

  • Nearing, Grey S.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Clark, Martyn P.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 19, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0209.1

Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models: Soil microbes in earth system models
journal, October 2015

  • Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 29, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005188

Facilitating feedbacks between field measurements and ecosystem models
journal, May 2013

  • LeBauer, David S.; Wang, Dan; Richter, Katherine T.
  • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 83, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1890/12-0137.1

Representing Intrahillslope Lateral Subsurface Flow in the Community Land Model
journal, December 2019

  • Swenson, Sean C.; Clark, Martyn; Fan, Ying
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001833

Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly drive forest development after fire in the North American boreal zone: CLIMATE AND SOIL DRIVE BOREAL CARBON
journal, August 2016

  • Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N. J.; Bergeron, Y.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000576

Dominance of the suppressed: Power-law size structure in tropical forests
journal, January 2016


The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty
journal, December 2019

  • Lawrence, David M.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Koven, Charles D.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001583

The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times
journal, January 2016

  • Bloom, A. Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1515160113

Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)
journal, January 2016

  • Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Gloor, Manuel; Fauset, Sophie
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-4227-2016

A stand‐alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models
journal, October 2013

  • Haverd, Vanessa; Smith, Benjamin; Cook, Garry D.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50972

Separating the Impact of Individual Land Surface Properties on the Terrestrial Surface Energy Budget in both the Coupled and Uncoupled Land–Atmosphere System
journal, September 2019

  • Laguë, Marysa M.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Swann, Abigail L. S.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 32, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0812.1

A proposal for a general interface between land surface schemes and general circulation models
journal, December 1998


Implementing Plant Hydraulics in the Community Land Model, Version 5
journal, February 2019

  • Kennedy, Daniel; Swenson, Sean; Oleson, Keith W.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001500

TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access
journal, December 2019

  • Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Díaz, Sandra
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14904

Could Machine Learning Break the Convection Parameterization Deadlock?
journal, June 2018

  • Gentine, P.; Pritchard, M.; Rasp, S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078202

A unified approach for process‐based hydrologic modeling: 1. Modeling concept
journal, April 2015

  • Clark, Martyn P.; Nijssen, Bart; Lundquist, Jessica D.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 51, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017198

A Tiling Approach to Represent Subgrid Snow Variability in Coupled Land Surface–Atmosphere Models
journal, January 2017

  • Aas, Kjetil Schanke; Gisnås, Kjersti; Westermann, Sebastian
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 18, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0026.1

Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: Importance of the secondary vegetation sink: CARBON CYCLING AND LAND USE IN LM3V
journal, June 2009

  • Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.; Malyshev, Sergey
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 23, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GB003176

Toward a Mechanistic Modeling of Nitrogen Limitation on Vegetation Dynamics
journal, May 2012


Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites: Estimation of CLM Parameters
journal, March 2017

  • Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 122, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JG003297

Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water: OPINION
journal, May 2011

  • Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 47, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010WR010090

Species coexistence in a variable world: Species coexistence in a variable world
journal, June 2011


The BETHY/JSBACH Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System: experiences and challenges: BETHY/JSBACH CCDAS
journal, October 2013

  • Kaminski, T.; Knorr, W.; Schürmann, G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20118

ISS observations offer insights into plant function
journal, June 2017

  • Stavros, E. Natasha; Schimel, David; Pavlick, Ryan
  • Nature Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 1, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0194

Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests
journal, May 2016

  • Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 212, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14009

Improving the representation of radiation interception and photosynthesis for climate model applications
journal, January 2007


Quality control for community-based sea-ice model development
journal, August 2018

  • Roberts, Andrew F.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Allard, Richard
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 376, Issue 2129
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2017.0344

Global Carbon Budget 2018
journal, January 2018

  • Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre
  • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 10, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018

Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling on land model response to CO 2 fertilization and climate variability : INFLUENCE OF CARBON-NITROGEN COUPLING
journal, December 2007

  • Thornton, Peter E.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Rosenbloom, Nan A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002868

Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum
journal, January 2014

  • Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-2193-2014

Using lidar data and a height-structured ecosystem model to estimate forest carbon stocks and fluxes over mountainous terrain
journal, November 2008

  • Thomas, R. Quinn; Hurtt, George C.; Dubayah, Ralph
  • Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 34, Issue sup2
  • DOI: 10.5589/m08-036

SEIB–DGVM: A new Dynamic Global Vegetation Model using a spatially explicit individual-based approach
journal, January 2007


The European Space Agency BIOMASS mission: Measuring forest above-ground biomass from space
journal, June 2019


Plant hydraulics improves and topography mediates prediction of aspen mortality in southwestern USA
journal, July 2016

  • Tai, Xiaonan; Mackay, D. Scott; Anderegg, William R. L.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 213, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14098

A Transdisciplinary Review of Deep Learning Research and Its Relevance for Water Resources Scientists
journal, November 2018


The Plumbing of Land Surface Models: Benchmarking Model Performance
journal, June 2015

  • Best, M. J.; Abramowitz, G.; Johnson, H. R.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0158.1

The International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) System: Design, Theory, and Implementation
journal, November 2018

  • Collier, Nathan; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Lawrence, David M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001354

Leaf and stem economics spectra drive diversity of functional plant traits in a dynamic global vegetation model
journal, April 2015

  • Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12870

Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model
journal, November 2000

  • Cox, Peter M.; Betts, Richard A.; Jones, Chris D.
  • Nature, Vol. 408, Issue 6809
  • DOI: 10.1038/35041539

Pursuing the method of multiple working hypotheses for hydrological modeling: HYPOTHESIS TESTING IN HYDROLOGY
journal, September 2011

  • Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 47, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010WR009827

The future of distributed models: Model calibration and uncertainty prediction
journal, July 1992


Modelling carbon sources and sinks in terrestrial vegetation
journal, September 2018

  • Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Zscheischler, Jakob
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 221, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.15451

Inclusion of ecologically based trait variation in plant functional types reduces the projected land carbon sink in an earth system model
journal, March 2015

  • Verheijen, Lieneke M.; Aerts, Rien; Brovkin, Victor
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12871

A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520)
journal, January 2017

  • Goll, Daniel S.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Maignan, Fabienne
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-3745-2017

Development of a 50-Year High-Resolution Global Dataset of Meteorological Forcings for Land Surface Modeling
journal, July 2006

  • Sheffield, Justin; Goteti, Gopi; Wood, Eric F.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3790.1

Vegetation dynamics – simulating responses to climatic change
journal, January 1999


Modelling forest management within a global vegetation model—Part 1: Model structure and general behaviour
journal, October 2010


Linking big models to big data: efficient ecosystem model calibration through Bayesian model emulation
journal, January 2018


The role of data assimilation in predictive ecology
journal, May 2014


Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling
journal, February 2019

  • Fan, Y.; Clark, M.; Lawrence, D. M.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 55, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018WR023903

Evaluation of a Data Assimilation System for Land Surface Models Using CLM4.5
journal, October 2018

  • Fox, Andrew M.; Hoar, Timothy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001362

The Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project: A Community Resource for Studying Climate Change in the Presence of Internal Climate Variability
journal, August 2015

  • Kay, J. E.; Deser, C.; Phillips, A.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00255.1

Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle-climate feedback: PHYSIOLOGICAL TEMPERATURE ACCLIMATION
journal, October 2015

  • Lombardozzi, Danica L.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Smith, Nicholas G.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065934

Coupling of the Common Land Model to the NCAR Community Climate Model
journal, July 2002


An improved representation of physical permafrost dynamics in the JULES land-surface model
journal, January 2015

  • Chadburn, S.; Burke, E.; Essery, R.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-1493-2015

The Importance of Consistent Global Forest Aboveground Biomass Product Validation
journal, May 2019


Consistent assimilation of multiple data streams in a carbon cycle data assimilation system
journal, January 2016

  • MacBean, Natasha; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-3569-2016

Managing complexity in simulations of land surface and near-surface processes
journal, April 2016


Developments in the MPI‐M Earth System Model version 1.2 (MPI‐ESM1.2) and Its Response to Increasing CO 2
journal, April 2019

  • Mauritsen, Thorsten; Bader, Jürgen; Becker, Tobias
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001400

Coexistence, niches and biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning
journal, December 2012

  • Turnbull, Lindsay Ann; Levine, Jonathan M.; Loreau, Michel
  • Ecology Letters, Vol. 16
  • DOI: 10.1111/ele.12056

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 1: Overview and experimental design
journal, January 2013

  • Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-6-3977-2013

Improving the Representation of Polar Snow and Firn in the Community Earth System Model: IMPROVING POLAR SNOW AND FIRN IN CESM
journal, November 2017

  • van Kampenhout, Leonardus; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lipscomb, William H.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS000988

Global soil carbon projections are improved by modelling microbial processes
journal, July 2013

  • Wieder, William R.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Allison, Steven D.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1951

Evaluating the Performance of Land Surface Models
journal, November 2008

  • Abramowitz, Gab; Leuning, Ray; Clark, Martyn
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2378.1

Comparing optimal and empirical stomatal conductance models for application in Earth system models
journal, October 2018

  • Franks, Peter J.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Berry, Joseph A.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14445

Length Scales of Hydrological Variability as Inferred from SMAP Soil Moisture Retrievals
journal, November 2019

  • Koster, Randal D.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Schubert, Siegfried D.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 20, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-19-0070.1

Uncertainties in CMIP5 Climate Projections due to Carbon Cycle Feedbacks
journal, January 2014

  • Friedlingstein, Pierre; Meinshausen, Malte; Arora, Vivek K.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00579.1

Optimal stomatal behavior with competition for water and risk of hydraulic impairment
journal, October 2016

  • Wolf, Adam; Anderegg, William R. L.; Pacala, Stephen W.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615144113

Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment studies
journal, January 2014

  • Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 202, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12697

Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO 2 enrichment: How and why do current ecosystem models differ?
journal, April 2015

  • Walker, Anthony P.; Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 29, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004995

The Use of Similarity Concepts to Represent Subgrid Variability in Land Surface Models: Case Study in a Snowmelt-Dominated Watershed
journal, October 2014

  • Newman, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.; Winstral, Adam
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-038.1

Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes
journal, October 2015

  • Isbell, Forest; Craven, Dylan; Connolly, John
  • Nature, Vol. 526, Issue 7574
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature15374

Next-generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology
journal, March 2013

  • Scheiter, Simon; Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven I.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 198, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12210

Evapotranspiration models with canopy resistance for use in climate models, a review
journal, April 1991

  • Dickinson, Robert E.; Henderson-Sellers, Ann; Rosenzweig, Cynthia
  • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 54, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(91)90014-H

Evaluating stomatal models and their atmospheric drought response in a land surface scheme: A multibiome analysis: MULTIBIOME STOMATAL MODEL EVALUATION
journal, October 2015

  • Knauer, Jürgen; Werner, Christiane; Zaehle, Sönke
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 120, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JG003114

Models meet data: Challenges and opportunities in implementing land management in Earth system models
journal, December 2017

  • Pongratz, Julia; Dolman, Han; Don, Axel
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13988

Representing anthropogenic gross land use change, wood harvest, and forest age dynamics in a global vegetation model ORCHIDEE-MICT v8.4.2
journal, January 2018

  • Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-409-2018

Process-level model evaluation: a snow and heat transfer metric
journal, January 2017

  • Slater, Andrew G.; Lawrence, David M.; Koven, Charles D.
  • The Cryosphere, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/tc-11-989-2017

The impact of new land surface physics on the GCM simulation of climate and climate sensitivity
journal, March 1999


Nitrogen and phosphorous limitation reduces the effects of land use change on land carbon uptake or emission
journal, January 2015


Representation of fire, land-use change and vegetation dynamics in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator vn4.9 (JULES)
journal, January 2019

  • Burton, Chantelle; Betts, Richard; Cardoso, Manoel
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-12-179-2019

Effects of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Functioning: a Consensus of Current Knowledge
journal, February 2005

  • Hooper, D. U.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J. J.
  • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 75, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1890/04-0922

Global patterns of drought deciduous phenology in semi-arid and savanna-type ecosystems
journal, November 2016

  • Dahlin, Kyla M.; Ponte, Dominick Del; Setlock, Emily
  • Ecography, Vol. 40, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/ecog.02443

Variation in hydroclimate sustains tropical forest biomass and promotes functional diversity
journal, June 2018

  • Powell, Thomas L.; Koven, Charles D.; Johnson, Daniel J.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 219, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.15271

Net ecosystem exchange over heterogeneous Arctic tundra: Scaling between chamber and eddy covariance measurements: ARCTIC TUNDRA NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE
journal, June 2008

  • Fox, Andrew M.; Huntley, Brian; Lloyd, Colin R.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GB003027

A Method for Scaling Vegetation Dynamics: the Ecosystem Demography Model (ed)
journal, November 2001


Hyper-resolution global hydrological modelling: what is next?: “Everywhere and locally relevant”
journal, December 2014

  • Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Bell, Victoria A.; Burek, Peter
  • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 29, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10391

Advances in remote sensing of vegetation function and traits
journal, December 2015

  • Houborg, Rasmus; Fisher, Joshua B.; Skidmore, Andrew K.
  • International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 43
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2015.06.001

Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions
journal, December 2017

  • Butler, Ethan E.; Datta, Abhirup; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, Issue 51
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708984114

Optimal nitrogen allocation controls tree responses to elevated CO 2
journal, June 2007


The SURFEXv7.2 land and ocean surface platform for coupled or offline simulation of earth surface variables and fluxes
journal, January 2013

  • Masson, V.; Le Moigne, P.; Martin, E.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-929-2013

Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in Version 4 of the Community Land Model
journal, January 2011

  • Lawrence, David M.; Oleson, Keith W.; Flanner, Mark G.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011MS000045

Focus on cumulative emissions, global carbon budgets and the implications for climate mitigation targets
journal, December 2017

  • Matthews, H. Damon; Zickfeld, Kirsten; Knutti, Reto
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa98c9

Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits
journal, January 2015

  • Atkin, Owen K.; Bloomfield, Keith J.; Reich, Peter B.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 206, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.13253

Limitation of plant water use by rhizosphere and xylem conductance: results from a model
journal, April 1998


The Art and Science of Climate Model Tuning
journal, March 2017

  • Hourdin, Frédéric; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Gettelman, Andrew
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 98, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00135.1

The role of phosphorus dynamics in tropical forests – a modeling study using CLM-CNP
journal, January 2014


Recent Changes in the ISBA‐CTRIP Land Surface System for Use in the CNRM‐CM6 Climate Model and in Global Off‐Line Hydrological Applications
journal, May 2019

  • Decharme, Bertrand; Delire, Christine; Minvielle, Marie
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001545

A Simple Biosphere Model (SIB) for Use within General Circulation Models
journal, March 1986


Incident radiation and the allocation of nitrogen within Arctic plant canopies: implications for predicting gross primary productivity
journal, July 2012


Integrating microbial ecology into ecosystem models: challenges and priorities
journal, September 2011

  • Treseder, Kathleen K.; Balser, Teri C.; Bradford, Mark A.
  • Biogeochemistry, Vol. 109, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10533-011-9636-5

Tree level hydrodynamic approach for resolving aboveground water storage and stomatal conductance and modeling the effects of tree hydraulic strategy: Stomatal Conductance Parameterization
journal, July 2016

  • Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil; Matheny, Ashley M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 121, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JG003467

A new stepwise carbon cycle data assimilation system using multiple data streams to constrain the simulated land surface carbon cycle
journal, January 2016

  • Peylin, Philippe; Bacour, Cédric; MacBean, Natasha
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-3321-2016

Use of a simulation model and ecosystem flux data to examine carbon-water interactions in ponderosa pine
journal, March 2001


Carbon cycle confidence and uncertainty: Exploring variation among soil biogeochemical models
journal, November 2017

  • Wieder, William R.; Hartman, Melannie D.; Sulman, Benjamin N.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13979

Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.