skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Internal short circuit and failure mechanisms of lithium-ion pouch cells under mechanical indentation abuse conditions: An experimental study

Abstract

Electromechanical structural integrity and thermal stability dictate the safety performance of lithium-ion batteries. Progressive deformation and failure across microscopic and macroscopic lengths scales that are responsible for internal short circuit (ISC) in lithium-ion cells under mechanical abuse conditions remains elusive. In this study, a series of indentation tests were conducted on lithium-ion cells with different capacities up to the occurrence of ISC. The external response and internal configuration of these cells were investigated. It is discovered that cells with different capacities and state of charges exhibited different behaviors. Maximum temperature, which is often regarded as the most important parameter related to thermal runaway (TR), varied considerably due to the complicated contact configurations. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) showed that ISC was a collective result of shear band or other strain-localization modes in the electrode assembly, shear offsets in the granular coatings of electrodes, and the accompanying ductile fracture in the metal foils. We believe that the irregular strain-localization modes (kinks, cusps, and buckles), radical mismatches in mechanical properties of different layers, and geometric features of the indenter eventually lead to the tearing/puncture of cell separator at various locations. Furthermore, the results could provide useful guidance for the micromechanical modeling of lithium-ionmore » cells.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [4]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beijing Inst. of Technology (China); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  4. Beijing Inst. of Technology (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity (OE)
OSTI Identifier:
1615194
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1603703
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 455; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; internal short circuit; lithium-ion cells; mechanical deformation; failure mechanisms

Citation Formats

Zhu, Xiaoqing, Wang, Hsin, Wang, Xue, Gao, Yanfei, Allu, Srikanth, Cakmak, Ercan, and Wang, Zhenpo. Internal short circuit and failure mechanisms of lithium-ion pouch cells under mechanical indentation abuse conditions: An experimental study. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.227939.
Zhu, Xiaoqing, Wang, Hsin, Wang, Xue, Gao, Yanfei, Allu, Srikanth, Cakmak, Ercan, & Wang, Zhenpo. Internal short circuit and failure mechanisms of lithium-ion pouch cells under mechanical indentation abuse conditions: An experimental study. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.227939
Zhu, Xiaoqing, Wang, Hsin, Wang, Xue, Gao, Yanfei, Allu, Srikanth, Cakmak, Ercan, and Wang, Zhenpo. Thu . "Internal short circuit and failure mechanisms of lithium-ion pouch cells under mechanical indentation abuse conditions: An experimental study". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.227939. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1615194.
@article{osti_1615194,
title = {Internal short circuit and failure mechanisms of lithium-ion pouch cells under mechanical indentation abuse conditions: An experimental study},
author = {Zhu, Xiaoqing and Wang, Hsin and Wang, Xue and Gao, Yanfei and Allu, Srikanth and Cakmak, Ercan and Wang, Zhenpo},
abstractNote = {Electromechanical structural integrity and thermal stability dictate the safety performance of lithium-ion batteries. Progressive deformation and failure across microscopic and macroscopic lengths scales that are responsible for internal short circuit (ISC) in lithium-ion cells under mechanical abuse conditions remains elusive. In this study, a series of indentation tests were conducted on lithium-ion cells with different capacities up to the occurrence of ISC. The external response and internal configuration of these cells were investigated. It is discovered that cells with different capacities and state of charges exhibited different behaviors. Maximum temperature, which is often regarded as the most important parameter related to thermal runaway (TR), varied considerably due to the complicated contact configurations. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) showed that ISC was a collective result of shear band or other strain-localization modes in the electrode assembly, shear offsets in the granular coatings of electrodes, and the accompanying ductile fracture in the metal foils. We believe that the irregular strain-localization modes (kinks, cusps, and buckles), radical mismatches in mechanical properties of different layers, and geometric features of the indenter eventually lead to the tearing/puncture of cell separator at various locations. Furthermore, the results could provide useful guidance for the micromechanical modeling of lithium-ion cells.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.227939},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 455,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Thermal runaway behavior during overcharge for large-format Lithium-ion batteries with different packaging patterns
journal, October 2019


Mechanisms for the evolution of cell variations within a LiNixCoyMnzO2/graphite lithium-ion battery pack caused by temperature non-uniformity
journal, December 2018


Thermal runaway mechanism of lithium ion battery for electric vehicles: A review
journal, January 2018


Time Sequence Map for Interpreting the Thermal Runaway Mechanism of Lithium-Ion Batteries With LiNixCoyMnzO2 Cathode
journal, November 2018


Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion Batteries without Internal Short Circuit
journal, October 2018


Entropy-Based Voltage Fault Diagnosis of Battery Systems for Electric Vehicles
journal, January 2018


Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells
journal, January 2003


Mechanical integrity of 18650 lithium-ion battery module: Packing density and packing mode
journal, September 2018


Abuse by External Heating, Overcharge and Short Circuiting of Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
journal, January 2014

  • Larsson, Fredrik; Mellander, Bengt-Erik
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 161, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0311410jes

Failure mechanism of the lithium ion battery during nail penetration
journal, July 2018


A review of lithium ion battery failure mechanisms and fire prevention strategies
journal, July 2019

  • Wang, Qingsong; Mao, Binbin; Stoliarov, Stanislav I.
  • Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 73
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pecs.2019.03.002

Thermal runaway features of large format prismatic lithium ion battery using extended volume accelerating rate calorimetry
journal, June 2014


Characterization of penetration induced thermal runaway propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery module
journal, February 2015


Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test
journal, July 2015


Overcharge Investigation of Large Format Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells with Li(Ni 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 )O 2 Cathode for Electric Vehicles: Degradation and Failure Mechanisms
journal, January 2018

  • Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Zhenpo; Wang, Cong
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 165, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0161816jes

Analysis on the Fault Features for Internal Short Circuit Detection Using an Electrochemical-Thermal Coupled Model
journal, January 2018

  • Feng, X.; He, X.; Lu, L.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 165, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0501802jes

Failure analysis of pinch–torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-ion cells
journal, November 2014


Investigating the thermal runaway mechanisms of lithium-ion batteries based on thermal analysis database
journal, July 2019


Mechanical abuse simulation and thermal runaway risks of large-format Li-ion batteries
journal, February 2017


Internal short circuit in Li-ion cells
journal, June 2009


Modeling and short circuit detection of 18650 Li-ion cells under mechanical abuse conditions
journal, December 2012


Experimental simulation of internal short circuit in Li-ion and Li-ion-polymer cells
journal, September 2011


Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit
journal, February 2016


Progressive mechanical indentation of large-format Li-ion cells
journal, February 2017


Limiting Internal Short-Circuit Damage by Electrode Partition for Impact-Tolerant Li-Ion Batteries
journal, January 2018


Calibration and finite element simulation of pouch lithium-ion batteries for mechanical integrity
journal, March 2012


Behavior of granular soils reinforced with discrete randomly oriented inclusions
journal, January 1991


Strength differences arising from homogeneous versus heterogeneous dislocation nucleation
journal, February 2008


Deformation and failure of lithium-ion batteries treated as a discrete layered structure
journal, October 2019


Effects of induced anisotropy on the development of shear bands in granular materials
journal, July 1998


Integrated computation model of lithium-ion battery subject to nail penetration
journal, December 2016


Coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling for short-circuit prediction in a lithium-ion cell under mechanical abuse
journal, September 2015


State-of-Charge Dependence of Mechanical Response of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Result of Internal Stress
journal, January 2018

  • Li, Wei; Xia, Yong; Zhu, Juner
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 165, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0051809jes

Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility
journal, June 2014


Study of life evaluation methods for Li-ion batteries for backup applications
journal, June 2003


Internal Short Circuit Trigger Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Shape Memory Alloy
journal, January 2017

  • Zhang, Mingxuan; Du, Jiuyu; Liu, Lishuo
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 164, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0731713jes

A 3D thermal runaway propagation model for a large format lithium ion battery module
journal, November 2016


Mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of Li-ion battery separators
journal, April 2017


Fault detection of the connection of lithium-ion power batteries based on entropy for electric vehicles
journal, October 2015


Fault and defect diagnosis of battery for electric vehicles based on big data analysis methods
journal, December 2017


Characterization of large format lithium ion battery exposed to extremely high temperature
journal, December 2014


Dynamic impact tests on lithium-ion cells
journal, October 2017


Investigation of the deformation mechanisms of lithium-ion battery components using in-situ micro tests
journal, August 2018


Data-Driven Safety Envelope of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles
journal, November 2019


Building better batteries
journal, February 2008

  • Armand, M.; Tarascon, J.-M.
  • Nature, Vol. 451, Issue 7179, p. 652-657
  • DOI: 10.1038/451652a

Commercialization of Lithium Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles
journal, June 2019

  • Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Li, Matthew; Abd El‐Hady, Deia
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201900161

Experiments and 3D detailed modeling for a pouch battery cell under impact loading
journal, February 2020


Shear Band Formation in Plane Strain Experiments of Sand
journal, June 2000


Failure in lithium-ion batteries under transverse indentation loading
journal, June 2018


Application of extended Mohr–Coulomb criterion to ductile fracture
journal, November 2009


On the shear-band direction in metallic glasses
journal, June 2011


Deformation and failure characteristics of four types of lithium-ion battery separators
journal, September 2016


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Effect of State-of-Charge and Air Exposure on Tensile Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes
    journal, January 2020

    • Pan, Zhexin; Sedlatschek, Tobias; Xia, Yong
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/ab8804

    Effect of State-of-Charge and Air Exposure on Tensile Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes
    text, January 2020