skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The role of Mg bulk hyper-doping and delta-doping in low-resistance GaN homojunction tunnel diodes with negative differential resistance

Abstract

GaN p++/n++ tunnel junctions (TJs) with heavy bulk or delta Mg doping at the junction were grown via molecular beam epitaxy with a hysteresis-free and repeatable negative differential resistance (NDR). The TJ with Mg doping of 5.5 × 1020 cm-3 shows NDR at~1.8 V and a large current density of 3.4 KA/cm2 at -1.0 V. Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging showed no additional defects despite the doping exceeding the solubility limit in GaN allowing subsequent epitaxy of series-connected layers and devices. GaN homojunction TJs grown on bulk GaN showed an improved current density and NDR stability. In addition, the effect of Mg delta doping at the junction was investigated for the first time showing a dramatic improvement in the tunneling characteristics. A metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) with an MBE grown GaN homojunction tunnel contact to the MOCVD grown p-GaN layer shows superior lateral conductivity and improved luminescence uniformity, but suffers an added voltage penalty, assumed to be due to interface impurities, compared to control LED with indium-tin-oxide.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
  2. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  3. Photonitride Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1613606
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1559342
Grant/Contract Number:  
AR0000470; EEC-1041895; DMR-1710032
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 126; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Physics; Tunnel junctions; Tunnel diode; Negative resistance; Semiconductor materials; Transmission electron microscopy; Epitaxy; Light emitting diodes; Semiconductor junctions

Citation Formats

Vadiee, Ehsan, Clinton, Evan A., Carpenter, Joe V., McFavilen, Heather, Arena, Chantal, Holman, Zachary C., Honsberg, Christiana B., and Doolittle, W. Alan. The role of Mg bulk hyper-doping and delta-doping in low-resistance GaN homojunction tunnel diodes with negative differential resistance. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5112498.
Vadiee, Ehsan, Clinton, Evan A., Carpenter, Joe V., McFavilen, Heather, Arena, Chantal, Holman, Zachary C., Honsberg, Christiana B., & Doolittle, W. Alan. The role of Mg bulk hyper-doping and delta-doping in low-resistance GaN homojunction tunnel diodes with negative differential resistance. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5112498
Vadiee, Ehsan, Clinton, Evan A., Carpenter, Joe V., McFavilen, Heather, Arena, Chantal, Holman, Zachary C., Honsberg, Christiana B., and Doolittle, W. Alan. Wed . "The role of Mg bulk hyper-doping and delta-doping in low-resistance GaN homojunction tunnel diodes with negative differential resistance". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5112498. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1613606.
@article{osti_1613606,
title = {The role of Mg bulk hyper-doping and delta-doping in low-resistance GaN homojunction tunnel diodes with negative differential resistance},
author = {Vadiee, Ehsan and Clinton, Evan A. and Carpenter, Joe V. and McFavilen, Heather and Arena, Chantal and Holman, Zachary C. and Honsberg, Christiana B. and Doolittle, W. Alan},
abstractNote = {GaN p++/n++ tunnel junctions (TJs) with heavy bulk or delta Mg doping at the junction were grown via molecular beam epitaxy with a hysteresis-free and repeatable negative differential resistance (NDR). The TJ with Mg doping of 5.5 × 1020 cm-3 shows NDR at~1.8 V and a large current density of 3.4 KA/cm2 at -1.0 V. Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging showed no additional defects despite the doping exceeding the solubility limit in GaN allowing subsequent epitaxy of series-connected layers and devices. GaN homojunction TJs grown on bulk GaN showed an improved current density and NDR stability. In addition, the effect of Mg delta doping at the junction was investigated for the first time showing a dramatic improvement in the tunneling characteristics. A metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) with an MBE grown GaN homojunction tunnel contact to the MOCVD grown p-GaN layer shows superior lateral conductivity and improved luminescence uniformity, but suffers an added voltage penalty, assumed to be due to interface impurities, compared to control LED with indium-tin-oxide.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5112498},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 126,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Simulation of trap-assisted tunneling effect on characteristics of gallium nitride diodes
journal, June 2012

  • Sakowski, Konrad; Marcinkowski, Leszek; Krukowski, Stanislaw
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4730772

Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes
journal, September 2002

  • Cao, X. A.; Stokes, E. B.; Sandvik, P. M.
  • IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 23, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1109/LED.2002.802601

Analysis of forward tunneling current in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111) substrate
journal, July 2013

  • Kim, Jaekyun; Tak, Youngjo; Kim, Joosung
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4812231

Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III–nitride light-emitting diodes
journal, January 2016

  • Young, Erin C.; Yonkee, Benjamin P.; Wu, Feng
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.9.022102

Application of δ-doping in GaAs tunnel junctions
journal, January 1994

  • Wolter, J. H.; Leys, M. R.; Ragay, F. W.
  • Electronics Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 1, p. 86-87
  • DOI: 10.1049/el:19940002

Growth of Si delta-doped GaN by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition
journal, October 2000

  • Zhao, G. Y.; Adachi, M.; Ishikawa, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1314883

GaN-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions
journal, August 2001

  • Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Hasnain, Ghulam; Corzine, Scott
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Issue Part 2, No. 8B
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.40.L861

Polarization-Induced Zener Tunnel Junctions in Wide-Band-Gap Heterostructures
journal, July 2009


Ultrathin delta doped GaAs and AlAs tunnel junctions as interdevice ohmic contacts
journal, September 1993

  • DeSalvo, Gregory C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 74, Issue 6, p. 4207-4212
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.354425

InGaN-based violet laser diodes
journal, January 1999


Delta-doping interband tunneling diode by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, January 1993

  • Yan-Kuin Su,
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 40, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1109/16.249464

All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications
journal, March 2017

  • Neugebauer, S.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Witte, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 110, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4978268

Delta-doping optimization for high quality p-type GaN
journal, October 2008

  • Bayram, C.; Pau, J. L.; McClintock, R.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3000564

A Review of AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes on Sapphire
journal, July 2018

  • Nagasawa, Yosuke; Hirano, Akira
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.3390/app8081264

Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
journal, December 2017

  • Hwang, David; Mughal, Asad J.; Wong, Matthew S.
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.11.012102

Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films: Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films
journal, April 2017

  • Fischer, A. M.; Wang, S.; Ponce, F. A.
  • physica status solidi (b), Vol. 254, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201600668

Enhanced performance of p-GaN by Mg δ doping
journal, June 2007


Performance comparison of AlGaAs, GaAs and InGaP tunnel junctions for concentrated multijunction solar cells
journal, November 2010

  • Wheeldon, Jeffrey F.; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Walker, Alexandre W.
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 19, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.1056

Solid-State Lighting: A System Review
journal, December 2013

  • Branas, Christian; Azcondo, Francisco J.; Alonso, J. Marcos
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/MIE.2013.2280038

Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction
journal, November 2017

  • Okawara, Satoru; Aoki, Yuta; Kuwabara, Masakazu
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.11.012701

Electrical characteristics of magnesium-doped gallium nitride junction diodes
journal, June 1998

  • Fedison, J. B.; Chow, T. P.; Lu, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 72, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.121475

Mg doped GaN using a valved, thermally energetic source: enhanced incorporation, and control
journal, May 2005


InGaN solar cells with regrown GaN homojunction tunnel contacts
journal, July 2018

  • Vadiee, Ehsan; Clinton, Evan A.; McFavilen, Heather
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.11.082304

Negligible carrier freeze-out facilitated by impurity band conduction in highly p-type GaN
journal, August 2012

  • Gunning, Brendan; Lowder, Jonathan; Moseley, Michael
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4747466

Backward diodes using heavily Mg-doped GaN growth by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy
journal, February 2016

  • Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Malinverni, Marco
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4942369

Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions
journal, May 2001

  • Jeon, Seong-Ran; Song, Young-Ho; Jang, Ho-Jin
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 78, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1374483

Dislocation annihilation by silicon delta-doping in GaN epitaxy on Si
journal, December 2002

  • Contreras, O.; Ponce, F. A.; Christen, J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1529309

Comprehensive study of the electronic and optical behavior of highly degenerate p-type Mg-doped GaN and AlGaN
journal, January 2015

  • Gunning, Brendan P.; Fabien, Chloe A. M.; Merola, Joseph J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4906464

Metal modulation epitaxy growth for extremely high hole concentrations above 1019cm−3 in GaN
journal, October 2008

  • Namkoong, Gon; Trybus, Elaissa; Lee, Kyung Keun
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3005640

True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
journal, February 2018

  • Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Muziol, Grzegorz; Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, Krzesimir
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.11.034103

Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes
journal, November 2010

  • Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Akyol, Fatih
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3517481

GaN Technology for Power Electronic Applications: A Review
journal, March 2016

  • Flack, Tyler J.; Pushpakaran, Bejoy N.; Bayne, Stephen B.
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 45, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-016-4435-3

New Phenomenon in Narrow Germanium p n Junctions
journal, January 1958


Theoretical evidence for efficient p-type doping of GaN using beryllium
journal, June 1997

  • Bernardini, Fabio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo; Bosin, Andrea
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 70, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.118766

Gallium-Arsenide Tunnel Diodes
journal, August 1960


Use of nonstoichiometry to form GaAs tunnel junctions
journal, December 1997

  • Ahmed, S.; Melloch, M. R.; Harmon, E. S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.120475

The prediction of tunnel diode voltage-current characteristics
journal, February 1970


Enhanced p-type conduction in GaN and AlGaN by Mg-δ-doping
journal, May 2003

  • Nakarmi, M. L.; Kim, K. H.; Li, J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 82, Issue 18, p. 3041-3043
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1559444

Detailed analysis and performance limiting mechanism of Si delta-doped GaAs tunnel diode grown by MBE
journal, October 2018

  • Kang, Seokjin; Ju, Gun Wu; Min, Jung-Wook
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 57, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.57.120306

GaN:-Mg grown by MOVPE: Structural properties and their effect on the electronic and optical behavior
journal, January 2008


Low-resistance GaN tunnel homojunctions with 150 kA/cm 2 current and repeatable negative differential resistance
journal, March 2016

  • Akyol, Fatih; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Zhang, Yuewei
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4944998

Effect of Si doping on strain, cracking, and microstructure in GaN thin films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
journal, June 2000

  • Romano, L. T.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Ager, J. W.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.373529

GdN Nanoisland-Based GaN Tunnel Junctions
journal, May 2013

  • Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Jing
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl4006723

Negative differential resistance in GaN homojunction tunnel diodes and low voltage loss tunnel contacts
journal, June 2018

  • Clinton, Evan A.; Vadiee, Ehsan; Shen, Shyh-Chiang
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 112, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5035293

Vertical cavity violet light emitting diode incorporating an aluminum gallium nitride distributed Bragg mirror and a tunnel junction
journal, November 2001

  • Diagne, M.; He, Y.; Zhou, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 79, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1415405

GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, May 2018

  • Lee, SeungGeun; Forman, Charles A.; Lee, Changmin
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.11.062703