The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems
Abstract
In this work, we consider open quantum systems consisting of a finite system of independent fermions with arbitrary Hamiltonian coupled to one or more equilibrium fermion reservoirs (which need not be in equilibrium with each other). A strong form of the third law of thermodynamics, S(T) → 0 as T → 0, is proven for fully open quantum systems in thermal equilibrium with their environment, defined as systems where all states are broadened due to environmental coupling. For generic open quantum systems, it is shown that S(T) → g ln 2 as T → 0, where g is the number of localized states lying exactly at the chemical potential of the reservoir. For driven open quantum systems in a nonequilibrium steady state, it is shown that the local entropy S(x;T)→0 as T(x) → 0, except for cases of measure zero arising due to localized states, where T(x) is the temperature measured by a local thermometer.
 Authors:

 Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
 Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
 Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE Office of Science (SC)
 OSTI Identifier:
 1610889
 Alternate Identifier(s):
 OSTI ID: 1557022
 Grant/Contract Number:
 SC0006699
 Resource Type:
 Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 Journal of Chemical Physics
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 151; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 00219606
 Publisher:
 American Institute of Physics (AIP)
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; Chemistry; Physics
Citation Formats
Shastry, Abhay, Xu, Yiheng, and Stafford, Charles A. The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1063/1.5100182.
Shastry, Abhay, Xu, Yiheng, & Stafford, Charles A. The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5100182
Shastry, Abhay, Xu, Yiheng, and Stafford, Charles A. Tue .
"The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5100182. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1610889.
@article{osti_1610889,
title = {The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems},
author = {Shastry, Abhay and Xu, Yiheng and Stafford, Charles A.},
abstractNote = {In this work, we consider open quantum systems consisting of a finite system of independent fermions with arbitrary Hamiltonian coupled to one or more equilibrium fermion reservoirs (which need not be in equilibrium with each other). A strong form of the third law of thermodynamics, S(T) → 0 as T → 0, is proven for fully open quantum systems in thermal equilibrium with their environment, defined as systems where all states are broadened due to environmental coupling. For generic open quantum systems, it is shown that S(T) → g ln 2 as T → 0, where g is the number of localized states lying exactly at the chemical potential of the reservoir. For driven open quantum systems in a nonequilibrium steady state, it is shown that the local entropy S(x;T)→0 as T(x) → 0, except for cases of measure zero arising due to localized states, where T(x) is the temperature measured by a local thermometer.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5100182},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 151,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}
Web of Science
Figures / Tables:
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Works referencing / citing this record:
Special topic on dynamics of open quantum systems
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