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Title: Creep Deformation in Vaca Muerta Shale From Nanoindentation to Triaxial Experiments

Abstract

In this work, we tested samples cored from the Vaca Muerta shale reservoir using nanoindentation (2 min) and triaxial (12 hr) creep experiments in which confining pressure and differential stresses were <40 MPa. In all cases, we observed transient creep wherein strain increased as the logarithm of time. Creep was always compactional, led to increased moduli, was triggered by changes in either hydrostatic or deviatoric stress, and occurred under loads well below the failure stress. Our results are consistent with yield cap models proposed to describe shear-enhanced compaction of sandstones and carbonates, assuming that the yield surface depends on strain rate. We compared our results to earlier studies that observed the transition from transient creep to approximately constant strain rate behavior. If short-term creep can be quantified by a creep modulus, $C$, and long-term creep, after a transition time, $$t_c$$, by a linear viscosity, $η$, then $$η = Ct_c$$. Owing to heterogeneity, the local values of Young's and creep moduli, E and C, measured during nanoindentation, varied by several orders of magnitude. Simple averaging of the indentation results overestimated E and C, as compared to their triaxial counterparts. The kinetics of log time creep, which is seen in various materials and loading circumstances, has been represented by a simple conceptual model incorporating the interplay of viscoelastic elements with widely distributed characteristic times. Thus, we argue that log time creep is an emerging phenomenon, independent of the identities of the underlying physical mechanisms.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division
OSTI Identifier:
1610330
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1547196
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-97ER14760
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Geochemistry & Geophysics

Citation Formats

Mighani, Saied, Bernabé, Yves, Boulenouar, Abdelhamid, Mok, Ulrich, and Evans, Brian. Creep Deformation in Vaca Muerta Shale From Nanoindentation to Triaxial Experiments. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019jb017524.
Mighani, Saied, Bernabé, Yves, Boulenouar, Abdelhamid, Mok, Ulrich, & Evans, Brian. Creep Deformation in Vaca Muerta Shale From Nanoindentation to Triaxial Experiments. United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019jb017524
Mighani, Saied, Bernabé, Yves, Boulenouar, Abdelhamid, Mok, Ulrich, and Evans, Brian. Mon . "Creep Deformation in Vaca Muerta Shale From Nanoindentation to Triaxial Experiments". United States. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019jb017524. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1610330.
@article{osti_1610330,
title = {Creep Deformation in Vaca Muerta Shale From Nanoindentation to Triaxial Experiments},
author = {Mighani, Saied and Bernabé, Yves and Boulenouar, Abdelhamid and Mok, Ulrich and Evans, Brian},
abstractNote = {In this work, we tested samples cored from the Vaca Muerta shale reservoir using nanoindentation (2 min) and triaxial (12 hr) creep experiments in which confining pressure and differential stresses were <40 MPa. In all cases, we observed transient creep wherein strain increased as the logarithm of time. Creep was always compactional, led to increased moduli, was triggered by changes in either hydrostatic or deviatoric stress, and occurred under loads well below the failure stress. Our results are consistent with yield cap models proposed to describe shear-enhanced compaction of sandstones and carbonates, assuming that the yield surface depends on strain rate. We compared our results to earlier studies that observed the transition from transient creep to approximately constant strain rate behavior. If short-term creep can be quantified by a creep modulus, $C$, and long-term creep, after a transition time, $t_c$, by a linear viscosity, $η$, then $η = Ct_c$. Owing to heterogeneity, the local values of Young's and creep moduli, E and C, measured during nanoindentation, varied by several orders of magnitude. Simple averaging of the indentation results overestimated E and C, as compared to their triaxial counterparts. The kinetics of log time creep, which is seen in various materials and loading circumstances, has been represented by a simple conceptual model incorporating the interplay of viscoelastic elements with widely distributed characteristic times. Thus, we argue that log time creep is an emerging phenomenon, independent of the identities of the underlying physical mechanisms.},
doi = {10.1029/2019jb017524},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 8,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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