DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Analytic description of primordial black hole formation from scalar field fragmentation

Abstract

We report that primordial black hole (PBH) formation is a more generic phenomenon than was once thought. The dynamics of a scalar field in inflationary universe can produce PBHs under mild assumptions regarding the scalar potential. In the early universe, light scalar fields develop large expectation values during inflation and subsequently relax to the minimum of the effective potential at a later time. During the relaxation process, an initially homogeneous scalar condensate can fragment into lumps via an instability similar to the gravitational (Jeans) instability, where the scalar self-interactions, rather than gravity, play the leading role. The fragmentation of the scalar field into lumps (e.g. Q-balls or oscillons) creates matter composed of relatively few heavy "particles", whose distribution is subject to significant fluctuations unconstrained by comic microwave background (CMB) observations and unrelated to the large-scale structure. If this matter component comes to temporarily dominate the energy density before the scalar lumps decay, PBHs can be efficiently produced during the temporary matter-dominated era. We develop a general analytic framework for description of PBH formation in this class of models. We highlight the differences between the scalar fragmentation scenario and other commonly considered PBH formation models. lASTLY, Given the existence of themore » Higgs field and the preponderance of scalar fields within supersymmetric and other models of new physics, PBHs constitute an appealing and plausible candidate for dark matter.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Advanced Analytics Center of Excellence, American Tire Distributors, Huntersville, NC (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI)
  3. Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI); Kyoto Univ. (Japan); National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)
  4. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1608335
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0009937; 15H05888; 15K21733; PHY-1607611
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2019; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1475-7516
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Cotner, Eric, Kusenko, Alexander, Sasaki, Misao, and Takhistov, Volodymyr. Analytic description of primordial black hole formation from scalar field fragmentation. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2019/10/077.
Cotner, Eric, Kusenko, Alexander, Sasaki, Misao, & Takhistov, Volodymyr. Analytic description of primordial black hole formation from scalar field fragmentation. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2019/10/077
Cotner, Eric, Kusenko, Alexander, Sasaki, Misao, and Takhistov, Volodymyr. Thu . "Analytic description of primordial black hole formation from scalar field fragmentation". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2019/10/077. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1608335.
@article{osti_1608335,
title = {Analytic description of primordial black hole formation from scalar field fragmentation},
author = {Cotner, Eric and Kusenko, Alexander and Sasaki, Misao and Takhistov, Volodymyr},
abstractNote = {We report that primordial black hole (PBH) formation is a more generic phenomenon than was once thought. The dynamics of a scalar field in inflationary universe can produce PBHs under mild assumptions regarding the scalar potential. In the early universe, light scalar fields develop large expectation values during inflation and subsequently relax to the minimum of the effective potential at a later time. During the relaxation process, an initially homogeneous scalar condensate can fragment into lumps via an instability similar to the gravitational (Jeans) instability, where the scalar self-interactions, rather than gravity, play the leading role. The fragmentation of the scalar field into lumps (e.g. Q-balls or oscillons) creates matter composed of relatively few heavy "particles", whose distribution is subject to significant fluctuations unconstrained by comic microwave background (CMB) observations and unrelated to the large-scale structure. If this matter component comes to temporarily dominate the energy density before the scalar lumps decay, PBHs can be efficiently produced during the temporary matter-dominated era. We develop a general analytic framework for description of PBH formation in this class of models. We highlight the differences between the scalar fragmentation scenario and other commonly considered PBH formation models. lASTLY, Given the existence of the Higgs field and the preponderance of scalar fields within supersymmetric and other models of new physics, PBHs constitute an appealing and plausible candidate for dark matter.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2019/10/077},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 10,
volume = 2019,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 63 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

I-balls
journal, May 2003


Decay of the true vacuum in curved space-time
journal, August 1987


Black Holes in the Early Universe
journal, August 1974

  • Carr, B. J.; Hawking, S. W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 168, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/168.2.399

Equilibrium state of a self-interacting scalar field in the de Sitter background
journal, November 1994


Primordial black holes—perspectives in gravitational wave astronomy
journal, February 2018

  • Sasaki, Misao; Suyama, Teruaki; Tanaka, Takahiro
  • Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 35, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aaa7b4

Baryogenesis from the gauge-mediation type Q -ball and the new type of Q -ball as the dark matter
journal, May 2014


Nonlinear axion dynamics and the formation of cosmological pseudosolitons
journal, May 1994


Positrons from primordial black hole microquasars and gamma-ray bursts
journal, February 2019


Gravitational instability of scalar fields and formation of primordial black holes
journal, August 1985

  • Khlopov, M. Y.; Malomed, B. A.; Zeldovich, Y. B.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 215, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/215.4.575

A preferred mass range for primordial black hole formation and black holes as dark matter revisited
journal, September 2017


MSSM dark matter constraints and decaying B-balls
journal, November 1998


Primordial Black Holes and r -Process Nucleosynthesis
journal, August 2017


Origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry
journal, December 2003


Primordial Black Holes
conference, December 2018

  • Garcia-Bellido, Juan
  • Proceedings of 2nd World Summit: Exploring the Dark Side of the Universe — PoS(EDSU2018)
  • DOI: 10.22323/1.335.0042

Solitons in the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model
journal, July 1997


Astrophysical bounds on supersymmetric dark-matter Q-balls
journal, August 2005

  • Kusenko, Alexander; Loveridge, Lee C.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2005, Issue 08
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2005/08/011

Black hole formation from axion stars
journal, March 2017

  • Helfer, Thomas; Marsh, David J. E.; Clough, Katy
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 03
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/03/055

Transmuted gravity wave signals from primordial black holes
journal, July 2018


Oscillons: Resonant configurations during bubble collapse
journal, August 1995


Density perturbations and black hole formation in hybrid inflation
journal, November 1996


Gravitationally Collapsed Objects of Very Low Mass
journal, April 1971

  • Hawking, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 152, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/152.1.75

Q -ball formation in the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario
journal, June 2000


Gravitational wave signatures of inflationary models from Primordial Black Hole dark matter
journal, September 2017

  • García-Bellido, Juan; Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 09
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/09/013

Dense Axion Stars
journal, September 2016


Decay of I-ball/oscillon in classical field theory
journal, April 2019

  • Ibe, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Wakutaka
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP04(2019)030

Primordial black holes for the LIGO events in the axionlike curvaton model
text, January 2018

  • Ando, Kenta; Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2018-03268

Primordial black holes as all dark matter
journal, April 2010

  • Frampton, Paul H.; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2010, Issue 04
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2010/04/023

Effect of inhomogeneity on primordial black hole formation in the matter dominated era
journal, December 2018


Q -ball decay rates into gravitinos and quarks
journal, January 2013


Axion miniclusters and Bose stars
journal, November 1993


Supersymmetric Q-balls as dark matter
journal, January 1998


Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
journal, February 2016


GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2
journal, June 2017


Nontopological solitons
journal, November 1992


Q-ball instability due to U ( 1 ) breaking
journal, July 2005


Erratum: Primordial Black Hole Scenario for the Gravitational-Wave Event GW150914 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 , 061101 (2016)]
journal, July 2018


Scalaron from R 2 -gravity as a heavy field
journal, May 2018

  • Pi, Shi; Zhang, Ying-li; Huang, Qing-Guo
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 05
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/05/042

Primordial black holes from scalar field evolution in the early universe
journal, November 2017


Abundance of Primordial Black Holes Depends on the Shape of the Inflationary Power Spectrum
journal, April 2019


Adiabatic invariance of oscillons / I -balls
journal, November 2015


Could supermassive black holes be quintessential primordial black holes?
journal, September 2002


Primordial black holes as dark matter
conference, January 2008

  • Majumdar, A. S.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Majumdar, Archan S.
  • OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR BLACK HOLES IN THE UNIVERSE: Proceedings of the 2nd Kolkata Conference on Observational Evidence for Black Holes in the Universe held in Kolkata India, 10–15 February 2008 and the Satellite Meeting on Black Holes, Neutron Stars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts held 16–17 February 2008, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3009471

Systems of Self-Gravitating Particles in General Relativity and the Concept of an Equation of State
journal, November 1969


Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe
journal, July 2017


Gravitational waves from primordial black hole mergers
journal, September 2017

  • Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 09
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/09/037

Coherent scalar-field oscillations in an expanding universe
journal, September 1983


New physics in a nutshell, or Q-ball as a power plant
journal, January 1998


Did LIGO Detect Dark Matter?
journal, May 2016


Detecting the gravitational wave background from primordial black hole dark matter
journal, December 2017


Oscillons after Inflation
journal, June 2012


Q-balls
journal, December 1985


Black holes in the early Universe
journal, October 2012


Cosmology, primordial black holes, and supermassive particles
journal, March 1985


Primordial black holes as generators of cosmic structures
journal, May 2018

  • Carr, Bernard; Silk, Joseph
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1204

Simulations of Q-ball formation
journal, May 2002


Astrophysical constraints on dark-matter Q -balls in the presence of baryon-violating operators
journal, December 2016


Massive primordial black holes from hybrid inflation as dark matter and the seeds of galaxies
journal, July 2015


Primordial black holes
journal, May 2010


Evolution of Isocurvature Perturbations ii: Radiation-Dust Universe
journal, April 1987


Erratum: Spins of primordial black holes formed in the matter-dominated phase of the Universe [Phys. Rev. D 96 , 083517 (2017)]
journal, March 2019


Oscillons from string moduli
journal, January 2018

  • Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco; Krippendorf, Sven
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP01(2018)083

Inflationary primordial black holes for the LIGO gravitational wave events and pulsar timing array experiments
journal, June 2017


Primordial black holes for the LIGO events in the axionlike curvaton model
journal, June 2018


Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Black Hole MACHO Binaries
journal, October 1997

  • Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 487, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/310886

Correspondence of I- and Q-balls as non-relativistic condensates
journal, August 2014


Flat directions in the scalar potential of the supersymmetric standard model
journal, May 1996


Primordial black holes as dark matter in supergravity inflation models
journal, October 2016


Hidden Universality in the Merger Rate Distribution in the Primordial Black Hole Scenario
journal, February 2018

  • Kocsis, Bence; Suyama, Teruaki; Tanaka, Takahiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 854, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaa7f4

Fine structure of oscillons in the spherically symmetric φ 4 Klein-Gordon model
journal, April 2002


Erratum: Gravitational Waves from Oscillons after Inflation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 , 011303 (2017)]
journal, May 2018


Inflationary primordial black holes as all dark matter
journal, August 2017


Gravitational waves from primordial black holes collisions in binary systems
journal, July 2018


End of inflation, oscillons, and matter-antimatter asymmetry
journal, October 2014


GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence
journal, June 2016


Oscillatons revisited
journal, April 2002


Decaying particles do not ‘‘heat up’’ the Universe
journal, February 1985


Cosmological Signature of the Standard Model Higgs Vacuum Instability: Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter
journal, March 2018


General relativistic boson stars
journal, September 2003


Combined boson-fermion stars: Configurations and stability
journal, June 1990


New X-ray bound on density of primordial black holes
journal, October 2017


Primordial black holes from inflaton fragmentation into oscillons
journal, October 2018


Pseudostable bubbles
journal, March 1994


The evaporation of Q-balls
journal, July 1986


Klein-Gordon Geon
journal, August 1968


Oscillons and quasibreathers in the ϕ 4 Klein-Gordon model
journal, December 2006


Double inflation as a single origin of primordial black holes for all dark matter and LIGO observations
journal, February 2018


Double inflation as a single origin of primordial black holes for all dark matter and LIGO observations
text, January 2018

  • Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Mukaida, Kyohei
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2018-01679

Primordial seeds of supermassive black holes
journal, May 2012


Oscillons from pure natural inflation
journal, August 2018


Primordial black holes and the string swampland
journal, December 2018


Quantum Field Theory in De Sitter Space: Renormalization by Point-Splitting
journal, March 1978

  • Bunch, T. S.; Davies, P. C. W.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 360, Issue 1700
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1978.0060

GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence
other, January 2016

  • Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
  • College Park, MD : American Physical Society
  • DOI: 10.15488/756

Primordial black holes as all dark matter
text, January 2010

  • Tsutomu, Yanagida,; Masahiro, Kawasaki,; Fuminobu, Takahashi,
  • The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University Libraries
  • DOI: 10.17615/0g7j-qh57

Primordial Black Holes for the LIGO Events in the Axion-like Curvaton Model
text, January 2017

  • Ando, Kenta; Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-12473

Black Holes in the Early Universe
journal, January 1974


GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2
other, January 2017

  • Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
  • College Park, MD : American Physical Society
  • DOI: 10.15488/2101

Primordial Black Holes
text, January 2008


Oscillons After Inflation
text, January 2011


Correspondence of I- and Q-balls as Non-relativistic Condensates
text, January 2014


End of inflation, oscillons and matter-antimatter asymmetry
text, January 2014


Did LIGO detect dark matter?
text, January 2016


Black hole formation from axion stars
text, January 2016


Primordial black holes from supersymmetry in the early universe
text, January 2016


Gravitational Waves from Primordial Black Hole Mergers
text, January 2017


Oscillons from String Moduli
text, January 2017


Hidden universality in the merger rate distribution in the primordial black hole scenario
text, January 2017


Double inflation as a single origin of primordial black holes for all dark matter and LIGO observations
text, January 2017


Primordial Black Holes and the String Swampland
text, January 2018


Effect of Inhomogeneity on Primordial Black Hole Formation in the Matter Dominated Era
text, January 2018


Non-Linear Axion Dynamics and Formation of Cosmological Pseudo-Solitons
text, January 1993


Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Black Hole MACHO Binaries
text, January 1997


Oscillatons revisited
text, January 2001


Q-ball Instability due to U(1) Breaking
text, January 2005


Axion Miniclusters and Bose Stars
text, January 1993


New physics in a nutshell, or Q-ball as a power plant
text, January 1997


Supersymmetric Q-balls as dark matter
text, January 1997


Works referencing / citing this record:

Mass bound for primordial black hole from trans-Planckian censorship conjecture
journal, February 2020