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Title: Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey

Abstract

In this work, we study the polarization properties of extragalactic sources at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPTpol 500 deg2 survey. We estimate the polarized power by stacking maps at known source positions, and correct for noise bias by subtracting the mean polarized power at random positions in the maps. We show that the method is unbiased using a set of simulated maps with similar noise properties to the real SPTpol maps. We find a flux-weighted mean-squared polarization fraction $$\langle$$p2$$\rangle$$ = [8.9 ± 1.1] × 10-4 at 95 GHz and [6.9 ± 1.1] × 10-4 at 150 GHz for the full sample. This is consistent with the values obtained for a subsample of active galactic nuclei. For dusty sources, we find 95 percent upper limits of $$\langle$$p2$$\rangle$$95 < 16.9 × 10-3 and $$\langle$$p2$$\rangle$$150 < 2.6 × 10-3. We find no evidence that the polarization fraction depends on the source flux or observing frequency. The 1σ upper limit on measured mean-squared polarization fraction at 150 GHz implies that extragalactic foregrounds will be subdominant to the CMB E and B mode polarization power spectra out to at least ℓ ≲ 5700 (ℓ ≲ 4700) and ℓ ≲ 5300 (ℓ ≲ 3600), respectively, at 95 (150) GHz.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [7];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16] more »;  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [6];  [7];  [5];  [24];  [6];  [25];  [12];  [6];  [5];  [26];  [27];  [16];  [28];  [12];  [12];  [29];  [30];  [31];  [14];  [32];  [22];  [19];  [33];  [5];  [22];  [34];  [15];  [1];  [35];  [36];  [11];  [23];  [37];  [38];  [12];  [39];  [40];  [41];  [42];  [43];  [2];  [44];  [45];  [19];  [46];  [47];  [48];  [25];  [46];  [4] « less
  1. School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
  2. School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ, UK
  3. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, MS209, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  4. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  5. NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
  6. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  7. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
  8. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, MS209, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  9. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
  10. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  11. School of Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa
  12. University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  13. TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  14. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  15. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Keck Institute for Space Studies, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, 1216 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  16. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  17. Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, CIFAR Program in Cosmology and Gravity, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada
  18. Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  19. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, Department of Physics, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  20. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Harvey Mudd College, 301 Platt Blvd., Claremont, CA 91711, USA
  21. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, Garching bei München D-85748, Germany
  22. Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada
  23. Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA, Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
  24. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, CIFAR Program in Cosmology and Gravity, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada, Department of Physics, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  25. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  26. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  27. Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
  28. NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  29. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
  30. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Str, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  31. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
  32. Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr 1, Munich D-81679, Germany, Excellence Cluster Origins, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching D-85748, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstr D-85748 Garching, Germany
  33. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
  34. Materials Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
  35. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Str S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
  36. Department of Physics, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
  37. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 USA, Department of Liberal Arts, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 112 S Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60603, USA
  38. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  39. Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada, Three-Speed Logic, Inc., Vancouver, B.C. V6A 2J8, Canada
  40. Department of Physics, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  41. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Str, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  42. Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  43. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
  44. Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada, Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
  45. Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742, USA
  46. High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
  47. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
  48. University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); National Science Foundation (NSF); Kavli Foundation; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; Australian Research Council (ARC)
Contributing Org.:
SPT
OSTI Identifier:
1607541
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1556975; OSTI ID: 1634014; OSTI ID: 1737589
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1907.02156; FERMILAB-PUB-19-386-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; PHY-1125897; GBMF 947; AC02-05CH11231; PLR-1248097; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 490 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; polarization; galaxies: active; cosmology: observations

Citation Formats

Gupta, N., Reichardt, C. L., Ade, P. A. R., Anderson, A. J., Archipley, M., Austermann, J. E., Avva, J. S., Beall, J. A., Bender, A. N., Benson, B. A., Bianchini, F., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiang, H. C., Citron, R., Moran, C. Corbett, Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W., Feng, C., Gallicchio, J., George, E. M., Gilbert, A., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N., Henning, J. W., Hilton, G. C., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Huang, N., Hubmayr, J., Irwin, K. D., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Li, D., Lowitz, A., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Montgomery, J., Nadolski, A., Natoli, T., Nibarger, J. P., Noble, G. I., Novosad, V., Padin, S., Patil, S., Pryke, C., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Sievers, C., Smecher, G., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Switzer, E. R., Tucker, C., Vanderlinde, K., Veach, T., Vieira, J. D., Wang, G., Whitehorn, N., Williamson, R., Wu, W. L. K., Yefremenko, V., and Zhang, L.. Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2905.
Gupta, N., Reichardt, C. L., Ade, P. A. R., Anderson, A. J., Archipley, M., Austermann, J. E., Avva, J. S., Beall, J. A., Bender, A. N., Benson, B. A., Bianchini, F., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiang, H. C., Citron, R., Moran, C. Corbett, Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W., Feng, C., Gallicchio, J., George, E. M., Gilbert, A., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N., Henning, J. W., Hilton, G. C., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Huang, N., Hubmayr, J., Irwin, K. D., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Li, D., Lowitz, A., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Montgomery, J., Nadolski, A., Natoli, T., Nibarger, J. P., Noble, G. I., Novosad, V., Padin, S., Patil, S., Pryke, C., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Sievers, C., Smecher, G., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Switzer, E. R., Tucker, C., Vanderlinde, K., Veach, T., Vieira, J. D., Wang, G., Whitehorn, N., Williamson, R., Wu, W. L. K., Yefremenko, V., & Zhang, L.. Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2905
Gupta, N., Reichardt, C. L., Ade, P. A. R., Anderson, A. J., Archipley, M., Austermann, J. E., Avva, J. S., Beall, J. A., Bender, A. N., Benson, B. A., Bianchini, F., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiang, H. C., Citron, R., Moran, C. Corbett, Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W., Feng, C., Gallicchio, J., George, E. M., Gilbert, A., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N., Henning, J. W., Hilton, G. C., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Huang, N., Hubmayr, J., Irwin, K. D., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Li, D., Lowitz, A., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Montgomery, J., Nadolski, A., Natoli, T., Nibarger, J. P., Noble, G. I., Novosad, V., Padin, S., Patil, S., Pryke, C., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Sievers, C., Smecher, G., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Switzer, E. R., Tucker, C., Vanderlinde, K., Veach, T., Vieira, J. D., Wang, G., Whitehorn, N., Williamson, R., Wu, W. L. K., Yefremenko, V., and Zhang, L.. Mon . "Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2905.
@article{osti_1607541,
title = {Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey},
author = {Gupta, N. and Reichardt, C. L. and Ade, P. A. R. and Anderson, A. J. and Archipley, M. and Austermann, J. E. and Avva, J. S. and Beall, J. A. and Bender, A. N. and Benson, B. A. and Bianchini, F. and Bleem, L. E. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chang, C. L. and Chiang, H. C. and Citron, R. and Moran, C. Corbett and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and de Haan, T. and Dobbs, M. A. and Everett, W. and Feng, C. and Gallicchio, J. and George, E. M. and Gilbert, A. and Halverson, N. W. and Harrington, N. and Henning, J. W. and Hilton, G. C. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hou, Z. and Hrubes, J. D. and Huang, N. and Hubmayr, J. and Irwin, K. D. and Knox, L. and Lee, A. T. and Li, D. and Lowitz, A. and Luong-Van, D. and Marrone, D. P. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Mocanu, L. M. and Mohr, J. J. and Montgomery, J. and Nadolski, A. and Natoli, T. and Nibarger, J. P. and Noble, G. I. and Novosad, V. and Padin, S. and Patil, S. and Pryke, C. and Ruhl, J. E. and Saliwanchik, B. R. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Shirokoff, E. and Sievers, C. and Smecher, G. and Staniszewski, Z. and Stark, A. A. and Story, K. T. and Switzer, E. R. and Tucker, C. and Vanderlinde, K. and Veach, T. and Vieira, J. D. and Wang, G. and Whitehorn, N. and Williamson, R. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yefremenko, V. and Zhang, L.},
abstractNote = {In this work, we study the polarization properties of extragalactic sources at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPTpol 500 deg2 survey. We estimate the polarized power by stacking maps at known source positions, and correct for noise bias by subtracting the mean polarized power at random positions in the maps. We show that the method is unbiased using a set of simulated maps with similar noise properties to the real SPTpol maps. We find a flux-weighted mean-squared polarization fraction $\langle$p2$\rangle$ = [8.9 ± 1.1] × 10-4 at 95 GHz and [6.9 ± 1.1] × 10-4 at 150 GHz for the full sample. This is consistent with the values obtained for a subsample of active galactic nuclei. For dusty sources, we find 95 percent upper limits of $\langle$p2$\rangle$95 < 16.9 × 10-3 and $\langle$p2$\rangle$150 < 2.6 × 10-3. We find no evidence that the polarization fraction depends on the source flux or observing frequency. The 1σ upper limit on measured mean-squared polarization fraction at 150 GHz implies that extragalactic foregrounds will be subdominant to the CMB E and B mode polarization power spectra out to at least ℓ ≲ 5700 (ℓ ≲ 4700) and ℓ ≲ 5300 (ℓ ≲ 3600), respectively, at 95 (150) GHz.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2905},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 490,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2905

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Cited by: 2 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Stacked $I$ and $P$ cutout maps extracted from the SPTpol 95 GHz (top panels) and 150 GHz (bottom panels) data at the positions of 69 sources with $S$ > 40 mJy in the SPT-SZ 150 GHz catalogue described in Section 2.1.

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  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 123, Issue 903
  • DOI: 10.1086/659879

The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies
journal, June 2016

  • Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 06
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2016/06/046

THE FIRST PUBLIC RELEASE OF SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DATA: MAPS OF A 95 deg 2 FIELD FROM 2008 OBSERVATIONS
journal, November 2011


Average fractional polarization of extragalactic sources at Planck frequencies
journal, October 2018


Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data
journal, January 2018

  • Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ff4

    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.