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Title: Experimental Pellet Shatter Thresholds and Analysis of Shatter Tube Ejecta for Disruption Mitigation Cryogenic Pellets

Abstract

Mitigating disruptions is essential for the longevity of future large tokamak experimental devices and reactors. Currently, shattered pellet injection (SPI) technique is the most effective mitigation technique found thus far, and has been chosen for the baseline disruption mitigation (DM) system for ITER. To optimally design SPI systems, the survivability of the pellet throughout the pre-shatter flight and the resulting shatter spray must be better understood. Experimental tests of low-angle single strike impacts of neon and argon pellets were conducted to determine the minimum normal kinetic impact energy that pellets can withstand throughout guide tube travel. Knowing the maximum normal kinetic energy that pellets of relevant materials and temperatures can withstand during flight will allow for an optimal SPI system design. Characterization of the downstream shatter spray was performed for various shatter tube geometries using pure argon and neon pellets. The experimentally measured post-shatter fragment size distribution is compared to theoretical models. The most accurate model found from this comparison is a statistics-based model for brittle material shattering that is correlated with the relevant physical parameters of SPI pellets. Extrapolation of the model to ITER size pellets is presented.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1607053
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0093-3813
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Brittle fracture mechanics; cryogenic pellets; disruption mitigation (DM); pellet injection; shattered pellet injection (SPI)

Citation Formats

Gebhart III, Trey E., Baylor, Larry R., and Meitner, Steven J.. Experimental Pellet Shatter Thresholds and Analysis of Shatter Tube Ejecta for Disruption Mitigation Cryogenic Pellets. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2019.2957968.
Gebhart III, Trey E., Baylor, Larry R., & Meitner, Steven J.. Experimental Pellet Shatter Thresholds and Analysis of Shatter Tube Ejecta for Disruption Mitigation Cryogenic Pellets. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2019.2957968
Gebhart III, Trey E., Baylor, Larry R., and Meitner, Steven J.. Wed . "Experimental Pellet Shatter Thresholds and Analysis of Shatter Tube Ejecta for Disruption Mitigation Cryogenic Pellets". United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2019.2957968. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1607053.
@article{osti_1607053,
title = {Experimental Pellet Shatter Thresholds and Analysis of Shatter Tube Ejecta for Disruption Mitigation Cryogenic Pellets},
author = {Gebhart III, Trey E. and Baylor, Larry R. and Meitner, Steven J.},
abstractNote = {Mitigating disruptions is essential for the longevity of future large tokamak experimental devices and reactors. Currently, shattered pellet injection (SPI) technique is the most effective mitigation technique found thus far, and has been chosen for the baseline disruption mitigation (DM) system for ITER. To optimally design SPI systems, the survivability of the pellet throughout the pre-shatter flight and the resulting shatter spray must be better understood. Experimental tests of low-angle single strike impacts of neon and argon pellets were conducted to determine the minimum normal kinetic impact energy that pellets can withstand throughout guide tube travel. Knowing the maximum normal kinetic energy that pellets of relevant materials and temperatures can withstand during flight will allow for an optimal SPI system design. Characterization of the downstream shatter spray was performed for various shatter tube geometries using pure argon and neon pellets. The experimentally measured post-shatter fragment size distribution is compared to theoretical models. The most accurate model found from this comparison is a statistics-based model for brittle material shattering that is correlated with the relevant physical parameters of SPI pellets. Extrapolation of the model to ITER size pellets is presented.},
doi = {10.1109/TPS.2019.2957968},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science},
number = 6,
volume = 48,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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