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Title: Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor

Abstract

The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor with programmable superconducting qubits to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 253 (about 1016). Measurements from repeated experiments sample the resulting probability distribution, which we verify using classical simulations. Our Sycamore processor takes about 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times—our benchmarks currently indicate that the equivalent task for a state-of-the-art classical supercomputer would take approximately 10,000 years. Finally, this dramatic increase in speed compared to all known classical algorithms is an experimental realization of quantum supremacy for this specific computational task, heralding a much-anticipated computing paradigm.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR)
Contributing Org.:
Google AI Quantum and Collaborators
OSTI Identifier:
1607005
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 574; Journal Issue: 7779; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; quantum information; quantum physics

Citation Formats

Arute, Frank, Arya, Kunal, Babbush, Ryan, Bacon, Dave, Bardin, Joseph C., Barends, Rami, Biswas, Rupak, Boixo, Sergio, Brandao, Fernando G. S. L., Buell, David A., Burkett, Brian, Chen, Yu, Chen, Zijun, Chiaro, Ben, Collins, Roberto, Courtney, William, Dunsworth, Andrew, Farhi, Edward, Foxen, Brooks, Fowler, Austin, Gidney, Craig, Giustina, Marissa, Graff, Rob, Guerin, Keith, Habegger, Steve, Harrigan, Matthew P., Hartmann, Michael J., Ho, Alan, Hoffmann, Markus, Huang, Trent, Humble, Travis S., Isakov, Sergei V., Jeffrey, Evan, Jiang, Zhang, Kafri, Dvir, Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn, Kelly, Julian, Klimov, Paul V., Knysh, Sergey, Korotkov, Alexander, Kostritsa, Fedor, Landhuis, David, Lindmark, Mike, Lucero, Erik, Liakh, Dmitry, Mandrà, Salvatore, McClean, Jarrod R., McEwen, Matthew, Megrant, Anthony, Mi, Xiao, Michielsen, Kristel, Mohseni, Masoud, Mutus, Josh, Naaman, Ofer, Neeley, Matthew, Neill, Charles, Niu, Murphy Yuezhen, Ostby, Eric, Petukhov, Andre, Platt, John C., Quintana, Chris, Rieffel, Eleanor G., Roushan, Pedram, Rubin, Nicholas C., Sank, Daniel, Satzinger, Kevin J., Smelyanskiy, Vadim, Sung, Kevin J., Trevithick, Matthew D., Vainsencher, Amit, Villalonga, Benjamin, White, Theodore, Yao, Z. Jamie, Yeh, Ping, Zalcman, Adam, Neven, Hartmut, and Martinis, John M. Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5.
Arute, Frank, Arya, Kunal, Babbush, Ryan, Bacon, Dave, Bardin, Joseph C., Barends, Rami, Biswas, Rupak, Boixo, Sergio, Brandao, Fernando G. S. L., Buell, David A., Burkett, Brian, Chen, Yu, Chen, Zijun, Chiaro, Ben, Collins, Roberto, Courtney, William, Dunsworth, Andrew, Farhi, Edward, Foxen, Brooks, Fowler, Austin, Gidney, Craig, Giustina, Marissa, Graff, Rob, Guerin, Keith, Habegger, Steve, Harrigan, Matthew P., Hartmann, Michael J., Ho, Alan, Hoffmann, Markus, Huang, Trent, Humble, Travis S., Isakov, Sergei V., Jeffrey, Evan, Jiang, Zhang, Kafri, Dvir, Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn, Kelly, Julian, Klimov, Paul V., Knysh, Sergey, Korotkov, Alexander, Kostritsa, Fedor, Landhuis, David, Lindmark, Mike, Lucero, Erik, Liakh, Dmitry, Mandrà, Salvatore, McClean, Jarrod R., McEwen, Matthew, Megrant, Anthony, Mi, Xiao, Michielsen, Kristel, Mohseni, Masoud, Mutus, Josh, Naaman, Ofer, Neeley, Matthew, Neill, Charles, Niu, Murphy Yuezhen, Ostby, Eric, Petukhov, Andre, Platt, John C., Quintana, Chris, Rieffel, Eleanor G., Roushan, Pedram, Rubin, Nicholas C., Sank, Daniel, Satzinger, Kevin J., Smelyanskiy, Vadim, Sung, Kevin J., Trevithick, Matthew D., Vainsencher, Amit, Villalonga, Benjamin, White, Theodore, Yao, Z. Jamie, Yeh, Ping, Zalcman, Adam, Neven, Hartmut, & Martinis, John M. Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5
Arute, Frank, Arya, Kunal, Babbush, Ryan, Bacon, Dave, Bardin, Joseph C., Barends, Rami, Biswas, Rupak, Boixo, Sergio, Brandao, Fernando G. S. L., Buell, David A., Burkett, Brian, Chen, Yu, Chen, Zijun, Chiaro, Ben, Collins, Roberto, Courtney, William, Dunsworth, Andrew, Farhi, Edward, Foxen, Brooks, Fowler, Austin, Gidney, Craig, Giustina, Marissa, Graff, Rob, Guerin, Keith, Habegger, Steve, Harrigan, Matthew P., Hartmann, Michael J., Ho, Alan, Hoffmann, Markus, Huang, Trent, Humble, Travis S., Isakov, Sergei V., Jeffrey, Evan, Jiang, Zhang, Kafri, Dvir, Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn, Kelly, Julian, Klimov, Paul V., Knysh, Sergey, Korotkov, Alexander, Kostritsa, Fedor, Landhuis, David, Lindmark, Mike, Lucero, Erik, Liakh, Dmitry, Mandrà, Salvatore, McClean, Jarrod R., McEwen, Matthew, Megrant, Anthony, Mi, Xiao, Michielsen, Kristel, Mohseni, Masoud, Mutus, Josh, Naaman, Ofer, Neeley, Matthew, Neill, Charles, Niu, Murphy Yuezhen, Ostby, Eric, Petukhov, Andre, Platt, John C., Quintana, Chris, Rieffel, Eleanor G., Roushan, Pedram, Rubin, Nicholas C., Sank, Daniel, Satzinger, Kevin J., Smelyanskiy, Vadim, Sung, Kevin J., Trevithick, Matthew D., Vainsencher, Amit, Villalonga, Benjamin, White, Theodore, Yao, Z. Jamie, Yeh, Ping, Zalcman, Adam, Neven, Hartmut, and Martinis, John M. Wed . "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1607005.
@article{osti_1607005,
title = {Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor},
author = {Arute, Frank and Arya, Kunal and Babbush, Ryan and Bacon, Dave and Bardin, Joseph C. and Barends, Rami and Biswas, Rupak and Boixo, Sergio and Brandao, Fernando G. S. L. and Buell, David A. and Burkett, Brian and Chen, Yu and Chen, Zijun and Chiaro, Ben and Collins, Roberto and Courtney, William and Dunsworth, Andrew and Farhi, Edward and Foxen, Brooks and Fowler, Austin and Gidney, Craig and Giustina, Marissa and Graff, Rob and Guerin, Keith and Habegger, Steve and Harrigan, Matthew P. and Hartmann, Michael J. and Ho, Alan and Hoffmann, Markus and Huang, Trent and Humble, Travis S. and Isakov, Sergei V. and Jeffrey, Evan and Jiang, Zhang and Kafri, Dvir and Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn and Kelly, Julian and Klimov, Paul V. and Knysh, Sergey and Korotkov, Alexander and Kostritsa, Fedor and Landhuis, David and Lindmark, Mike and Lucero, Erik and Liakh, Dmitry and Mandrà, Salvatore and McClean, Jarrod R. and McEwen, Matthew and Megrant, Anthony and Mi, Xiao and Michielsen, Kristel and Mohseni, Masoud and Mutus, Josh and Naaman, Ofer and Neeley, Matthew and Neill, Charles and Niu, Murphy Yuezhen and Ostby, Eric and Petukhov, Andre and Platt, John C. and Quintana, Chris and Rieffel, Eleanor G. and Roushan, Pedram and Rubin, Nicholas C. and Sank, Daniel and Satzinger, Kevin J. and Smelyanskiy, Vadim and Sung, Kevin J. and Trevithick, Matthew D. and Vainsencher, Amit and Villalonga, Benjamin and White, Theodore and Yao, Z. Jamie and Yeh, Ping and Zalcman, Adam and Neven, Hartmut and Martinis, John M.},
abstractNote = {The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor with programmable superconducting qubits to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 253 (about 1016). Measurements from repeated experiments sample the resulting probability distribution, which we verify using classical simulations. Our Sycamore processor takes about 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times—our benchmarks currently indicate that the equivalent task for a state-of-the-art classical supercomputer would take approximately 10,000 years. Finally, this dramatic increase in speed compared to all known classical algorithms is an experimental realization of quantum supremacy for this specific computational task, heralding a much-anticipated computing paradigm.},
doi = {10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7779,
volume = 574,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 3027 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: The Sycamore processor. a, Layout of processor showing a rectangular array of 54 qubits (gray), each connected to its four nearest neighbors with couplers (blue). Inoperable qubit is outlined. b, Optical image of the Sycamore chip.

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