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Title: Stereolithography 3D Printing of Lignin-Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties

Abstract

Due to the availability, biodegradability, and biological effects, lignin has emerged as an interesting alternative to petroleum-based compounds for developing sustainable chemicals, materials, and composites. In this study, lignin at various concentrations was incorporated into methacrylate resin via solution blending to fabricate lignin-reinforced composites using stereolithography apparatus three-dimensional printing. Softwood kraft lignin in the amounts of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt % in the methacrylate resin was used as a printing ink, and the gel contents and relative contents of the residual resin in the printed samples with various lignin concentrations were measured. The effects of the lignin on the ultimate mechanical properties of the non-postcured and postcured printed composites were determined. The tensile testing results revealed that the incorporation of lignin in the composite increased the tensile strength by 46–64% and Young’s modulus by 13–37% for the postcured printed composites compared with that of the control sample (no lignin added). Employing a 0.4 wt % softwood kraft lignin, the tensile strength of the postcured printed composite reached the highest value of 49.0 MPa, which was a 60% increase in comparison to that of the control sample with 30.7 MPa. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture samplesmore » illustrated that the lignin-incorporated composites exhibited a rougher fracture surface that can presumably dissipate the stress, which could be a contributing factor for the mechanical enhancement.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
  2. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Institute for Computational Sciences (JIBS)
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Institute for Computational Sciences (JIBS) ; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1606675
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Omega
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-1343
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Composites; Organic polymers; 3D printing; Biopolymers; Tensile strength

Citation Formats

Zhang, Shuyang, Li, Mi, Hao, Naijia, and Ragauskas, Arthur J. Stereolithography 3D Printing of Lignin-Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02455.
Zhang, Shuyang, Li, Mi, Hao, Naijia, & Ragauskas, Arthur J. Stereolithography 3D Printing of Lignin-Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02455
Zhang, Shuyang, Li, Mi, Hao, Naijia, and Ragauskas, Arthur J. Wed . "Stereolithography 3D Printing of Lignin-Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02455. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1606675.
@article{osti_1606675,
title = {Stereolithography 3D Printing of Lignin-Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties},
author = {Zhang, Shuyang and Li, Mi and Hao, Naijia and Ragauskas, Arthur J.},
abstractNote = {Due to the availability, biodegradability, and biological effects, lignin has emerged as an interesting alternative to petroleum-based compounds for developing sustainable chemicals, materials, and composites. In this study, lignin at various concentrations was incorporated into methacrylate resin via solution blending to fabricate lignin-reinforced composites using stereolithography apparatus three-dimensional printing. Softwood kraft lignin in the amounts of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt % in the methacrylate resin was used as a printing ink, and the gel contents and relative contents of the residual resin in the printed samples with various lignin concentrations were measured. The effects of the lignin on the ultimate mechanical properties of the non-postcured and postcured printed composites were determined. The tensile testing results revealed that the incorporation of lignin in the composite increased the tensile strength by 46–64% and Young’s modulus by 13–37% for the postcured printed composites compared with that of the control sample (no lignin added). Employing a 0.4 wt % softwood kraft lignin, the tensile strength of the postcured printed composite reached the highest value of 49.0 MPa, which was a 60% increase in comparison to that of the control sample with 30.7 MPa. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture samples illustrated that the lignin-incorporated composites exhibited a rougher fracture surface that can presumably dissipate the stress, which could be a contributing factor for the mechanical enhancement.},
doi = {10.1021/acsomega.9b02455},
journal = {ACS Omega},
number = 23,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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