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Title: Discovery of a nearby 1700 kms-1 star ejected from the Milky Way by Sgr A*

Abstract

We present the serendipitous discovery of the fastest main-sequence hyper-velocity star (HVS) by the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey (S5). The star S5-HVS1 is a ~2.35 M A-type star located at a distance of ~9 kpc from the Sun and has a heliocentric radial velocity of 1017 ± 2.7 kms-1 without any signature of velocity variability. The current 3D velocity of the star in the Galactic frame is 1755 ± 50 kms-1. When integrated backwards in time, the orbit of the star points unambiguously to the Galactic Centre, implying that S5-HVS1 was kicked away from Sgr A* with a velocity of ~1800 kms-1 and travelled for 4.8 Myr to its current location. This is so far the only HVS confidently associated with the Galactic Centre. S5-HVS1 is also the first hyper-velocity star to provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the Galaxy, such as the Solar motion Vy,⊙ = 246.1 ± 5.3 kms-1 or position R0 = 8.12 ± 0.23 kpc. The ejection trajectory and transit time of S5-HVS1 coincide with the orbital plane and age of the annular disc of young stars at the Galactic Centre, and thus may be linked to its formation. With the S5-HVS1 ejectionmore » velocity being almost twice the velocity of other hyper-velocity stars previously associated with the Galactic Centre, we question whether they have been generated by the same mechanism or whether the ejection velocity distribution has been constant over time.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [5]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [13];  [6];  [14]
  1. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  2. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
  3. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Science; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  4. Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
  5. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  6. Macquarie Univ., NSW (Australia)
  7. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  8. Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Macquarie Univ., NSW (Australia)
  9. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sydney Inst. for Astronomy, School of Physics
  10. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics
  11. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  12. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  13. Texas A & M Univ. at Galveston, TX (United States)
  14. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
S5
OSTI Identifier:
1606421
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-20-070-AE; arXiv:1907.11725
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; oai:inspirehep.net:1776120
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 491; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; stars: kinematics and dynamics; Galaxy: centre; Galaxy: fundamental parameters

Citation Formats

Koposov, Sergey E., Boubert, Douglas, Li, Ting S., Erkal, Denis, Da Costa, Gary S., Zucker, Daniel B., Ji, Alexander P., Kuehn, Kyler, Lewis, Geraint F., Mackey, Dougal, Simpson, Jeffrey D., Shipp, Nora, Wan, Zhen, Belokurov, Vasily, Bland-Hawthorn, Joss, Martell, Sarah L., Nordlander, Thomas, Pace, Andrew B., De Silva, Gayandhi M., and Wang, Mei-Yu. Discovery of a nearby 1700 kms-1 star ejected from the Milky Way by Sgr A*. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz3081.
Koposov, Sergey E., Boubert, Douglas, Li, Ting S., Erkal, Denis, Da Costa, Gary S., Zucker, Daniel B., Ji, Alexander P., Kuehn, Kyler, Lewis, Geraint F., Mackey, Dougal, Simpson, Jeffrey D., Shipp, Nora, Wan, Zhen, Belokurov, Vasily, Bland-Hawthorn, Joss, Martell, Sarah L., Nordlander, Thomas, Pace, Andrew B., De Silva, Gayandhi M., & Wang, Mei-Yu. Discovery of a nearby 1700 kms-1 star ejected from the Milky Way by Sgr A*. United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz3081
Koposov, Sergey E., Boubert, Douglas, Li, Ting S., Erkal, Denis, Da Costa, Gary S., Zucker, Daniel B., Ji, Alexander P., Kuehn, Kyler, Lewis, Geraint F., Mackey, Dougal, Simpson, Jeffrey D., Shipp, Nora, Wan, Zhen, Belokurov, Vasily, Bland-Hawthorn, Joss, Martell, Sarah L., Nordlander, Thomas, Pace, Andrew B., De Silva, Gayandhi M., and Wang, Mei-Yu. Mon . "Discovery of a nearby 1700 kms-1 star ejected from the Milky Way by Sgr A*". United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz3081. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1606421.
@article{osti_1606421,
title = {Discovery of a nearby 1700 kms-1 star ejected from the Milky Way by Sgr A*},
author = {Koposov, Sergey E. and Boubert, Douglas and Li, Ting S. and Erkal, Denis and Da Costa, Gary S. and Zucker, Daniel B. and Ji, Alexander P. and Kuehn, Kyler and Lewis, Geraint F. and Mackey, Dougal and Simpson, Jeffrey D. and Shipp, Nora and Wan, Zhen and Belokurov, Vasily and Bland-Hawthorn, Joss and Martell, Sarah L. and Nordlander, Thomas and Pace, Andrew B. and De Silva, Gayandhi M. and Wang, Mei-Yu},
abstractNote = {We present the serendipitous discovery of the fastest main-sequence hyper-velocity star (HVS) by the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey (S5). The star S5-HVS1 is a ~2.35 M⊙ A-type star located at a distance of ~9 kpc from the Sun and has a heliocentric radial velocity of 1017 ± 2.7 kms-1 without any signature of velocity variability. The current 3D velocity of the star in the Galactic frame is 1755 ± 50 kms-1. When integrated backwards in time, the orbit of the star points unambiguously to the Galactic Centre, implying that S5-HVS1 was kicked away from Sgr A* with a velocity of ~1800 kms-1 and travelled for 4.8 Myr to its current location. This is so far the only HVS confidently associated with the Galactic Centre. S5-HVS1 is also the first hyper-velocity star to provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the Galaxy, such as the Solar motion Vy,⊙ = 246.1 ± 5.3 kms-1 or position R0 = 8.12 ± 0.23 kpc. The ejection trajectory and transit time of S5-HVS1 coincide with the orbital plane and age of the annular disc of young stars at the Galactic Centre, and thus may be linked to its formation. With the S5-HVS1 ejection velocity being almost twice the velocity of other hyper-velocity stars previously associated with the Galactic Centre, we question whether they have been generated by the same mechanism or whether the ejection velocity distribution has been constant over time.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz3081},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 491,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 29
  • DOI: 10.1086/122654

Gravitational detection of a low-mass dark satellite galaxy at cosmological distance
journal, January 2012

  • Vegetti, S.; Lagattuta, D. J.; McKean, J. P.
  • Nature, Vol. 481, Issue 7381
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10669

Computing Bayes Factors Using a Generalization of the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio
journal, June 1995


IDENTIFYING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS USING THE z FILTER
journal, March 2012


Revised Gaia Data Release 2 passbands
journal, September 2018


SkyMapper Southern Survey: First Data Release (DR1)
journal, January 2018

  • Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher A.; Luvaul, Lance C.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 35
  • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2018.5

The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (Wise): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance
journal, November 2010


Identification of A‐colored Stars and Structure in the Halo of the Milky Way from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data
journal, September 2000

  • Yanny, Brian; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Kent, Steve
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 540, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/309386

SEGUE: A SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF 240,000 STARS WITH g = 14-20
journal, April 2009


Properties of the Remnant Clockwise disk of Young Stars in the Galactic Center
journal, February 2014


Clumpy Streams from Clumpy Halos: Detecting Missing Satellites with cold Stellar Structures
journal, March 2011

  • Yoon, Joo Heon; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hogg, David W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 731, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/58

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Technical Summary
journal, September 2000

  • York, Donald G.; Adelman, J.; Anderson, Jr., John E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/301513

Kinematics of hypervelocity stars in the triaxial halo of the Milky Way
journal, August 2007


Ejection of Hypervelocity Stars by the (Binary) Black Hole in the Galactic Center
journal, December 2003

  • Yu, Qingjuan; Tremaine, Scott
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 599, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/379546

The Spatial and Velocity Distributions of Hypervelocity Stars
journal, October 2010


The First Hypervelocity star from the Lamost Survey
journal, April 2014


The Milky Way’s Fermi bubbles: echoes of the last quasar outburst?: The Milky Way’s quasar outburst
journal, June 2011