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Title: Linear viscoelastic characterization of electrically conductive adhesives used as interconnect in photovoltaic modules

Abstract

Electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) are incorporated into recent designs of photovoltaic (PV) modules and replace the traditional metallic solders as interconnects. This transition depicts a significant material change, and a proper understanding of the interconnects' mechanical response has not yet been established. However, such an understanding is necessary to (a) identify the driving forces for module degradation and failure, (b) allow for module design optimization, and (c) enable accurate lifetime predictions. This study summarizes the framework for the mechanical materials characterization and modeling of ECAs for PV applications. Only high-fidelity material models are able to capture the rate and temperature dependency of the ECA interconnect and allow for accurate modeling of the materials response. Furthermore, a linear viscoelastic representation is found to describe the mechanical response of the ECAs sufficiently well. The effects of curing conditions and environmental exposure are investigated, and material models for a variety of ECAs are reported and prepared for the use in numerical simulations. Overall, a finite element simulation of a generic submodel of a shingled cell module is used to highlight the need for high-fidelity material models and demonstrates the error made in the predicted stress states by using less sophisticated models.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office, Durable Modules Consortium (DuraMAT)
OSTI Identifier:
1606309
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-75110
Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995; MainId:17640;UUID:75fc5b19-4de9-e911-9c29-ac162d87dfe5;MainAdminID:6118
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; electrically conductive adhesives; finite element method; material models; photovoltaic; viscoelasticity

Citation Formats

Springer, Martin, and Bosco, Nick. Linear viscoelastic characterization of electrically conductive adhesives used as interconnect in photovoltaic modules. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1002/pip.3257.
Springer, Martin, & Bosco, Nick. Linear viscoelastic characterization of electrically conductive adhesives used as interconnect in photovoltaic modules. United States. doi:10.1002/pip.3257.
Springer, Martin, and Bosco, Nick. Wed . "Linear viscoelastic characterization of electrically conductive adhesives used as interconnect in photovoltaic modules". United States. doi:10.1002/pip.3257.
@article{osti_1606309,
title = {Linear viscoelastic characterization of electrically conductive adhesives used as interconnect in photovoltaic modules},
author = {Springer, Martin and Bosco, Nick},
abstractNote = {Electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) are incorporated into recent designs of photovoltaic (PV) modules and replace the traditional metallic solders as interconnects. This transition depicts a significant material change, and a proper understanding of the interconnects' mechanical response has not yet been established. However, such an understanding is necessary to (a) identify the driving forces for module degradation and failure, (b) allow for module design optimization, and (c) enable accurate lifetime predictions. This study summarizes the framework for the mechanical materials characterization and modeling of ECAs for PV applications. Only high-fidelity material models are able to capture the rate and temperature dependency of the ECA interconnect and allow for accurate modeling of the materials response. Furthermore, a linear viscoelastic representation is found to describe the mechanical response of the ECAs sufficiently well. The effects of curing conditions and environmental exposure are investigated, and material models for a variety of ECAs are reported and prepared for the use in numerical simulations. Overall, a finite element simulation of a generic submodel of a shingled cell module is used to highlight the need for high-fidelity material models and demonstrates the error made in the predicted stress states by using less sophisticated models.},
doi = {10.1002/pip.3257},
journal = {Progress in Photovoltaics},
number = 7,
volume = 28,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
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This content will become publicly available on March 11, 2021
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