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Title: Electrochemical generation of liquid and solid sulfur on two-dimensional layered materials with distinct areal capacities

Abstract

It has recently been shown that sulfur, a solid material in its elementary form S8, can stay in a supercooled state as liquid sulfur in an electrochemical cell. We establish that this newly discovered state could have implications for lithium–sulfur batteries. Here, through in situ studies of electrochemical sulfur generation, we show that liquid (supercooled) and solid elementary sulfur possess very different areal capacities over the same charging period. To control the physical state of sulfur, we studied its growth on two-dimensional layered materials. We found that on the basal plane, only liquid sulfur accumulates; by contrast, at the edge sites, liquid sulfur accumulates if the thickness of the two-dimensional material is small, whereas solid sulfur nucleates if the thickness is large (tens of nanometres). Correlating the sulfur states with their respective areal capacities, as well as controlling the growth of sulfur on two-dimensional materials, could provide insights for the design of future lithium–sulfur batteries.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  5. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Physiology
  6. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1605374
Grant/Contract Number:  
DGE–1656518; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-3387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Yang, Ankun, Zhou, Guangmin, Kong, Xian, Vilá, Rafael A., Pei, Allen, Wu, Yecun, Yu, Xiaoyun, Zheng, Xueli, Wu, Chun-Lan, Liu, Bofei, Chen, Hao, Xu, Yan, Chen, Di, Li, Yanxi, Fakra, Sirine, Hwang, Harold Y., Qin, Jian, Chu, Steven, and Cui, Yi. Electrochemical generation of liquid and solid sulfur on two-dimensional layered materials with distinct areal capacities. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0624-6.
Yang, Ankun, Zhou, Guangmin, Kong, Xian, Vilá, Rafael A., Pei, Allen, Wu, Yecun, Yu, Xiaoyun, Zheng, Xueli, Wu, Chun-Lan, Liu, Bofei, Chen, Hao, Xu, Yan, Chen, Di, Li, Yanxi, Fakra, Sirine, Hwang, Harold Y., Qin, Jian, Chu, Steven, & Cui, Yi. Electrochemical generation of liquid and solid sulfur on two-dimensional layered materials with distinct areal capacities. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0624-6
Yang, Ankun, Zhou, Guangmin, Kong, Xian, Vilá, Rafael A., Pei, Allen, Wu, Yecun, Yu, Xiaoyun, Zheng, Xueli, Wu, Chun-Lan, Liu, Bofei, Chen, Hao, Xu, Yan, Chen, Di, Li, Yanxi, Fakra, Sirine, Hwang, Harold Y., Qin, Jian, Chu, Steven, and Cui, Yi. Mon . "Electrochemical generation of liquid and solid sulfur on two-dimensional layered materials with distinct areal capacities". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0624-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1605374.
@article{osti_1605374,
title = {Electrochemical generation of liquid and solid sulfur on two-dimensional layered materials with distinct areal capacities},
author = {Yang, Ankun and Zhou, Guangmin and Kong, Xian and Vilá, Rafael A. and Pei, Allen and Wu, Yecun and Yu, Xiaoyun and Zheng, Xueli and Wu, Chun-Lan and Liu, Bofei and Chen, Hao and Xu, Yan and Chen, Di and Li, Yanxi and Fakra, Sirine and Hwang, Harold Y. and Qin, Jian and Chu, Steven and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {It has recently been shown that sulfur, a solid material in its elementary form S8, can stay in a supercooled state as liquid sulfur in an electrochemical cell. We establish that this newly discovered state could have implications for lithium–sulfur batteries. Here, through in situ studies of electrochemical sulfur generation, we show that liquid (supercooled) and solid elementary sulfur possess very different areal capacities over the same charging period. To control the physical state of sulfur, we studied its growth on two-dimensional layered materials. We found that on the basal plane, only liquid sulfur accumulates; by contrast, at the edge sites, liquid sulfur accumulates if the thickness of the two-dimensional material is small, whereas solid sulfur nucleates if the thickness is large (tens of nanometres). Correlating the sulfur states with their respective areal capacities, as well as controlling the growth of sulfur on two-dimensional materials, could provide insights for the design of future lithium–sulfur batteries.},
doi = {10.1038/s41565-019-0624-6},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
number = 3,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Supercool sulfur
    journal, January 2020