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Title: An X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified giant arc

Abstract

In the past decade, our understanding of how stars and galaxies formed during the first 5 billion years after the Big Bang has been revolutionized by observations that leverage gravitational lensing by intervening masses, which act as natural cosmic telescopes to magnify background sources. Previous studies have harnessed this effect to probe the distant universe at ultraviolet, optical, infrared and millimeter wavelengths. However, strong lensing studies of young, star-forming galaxies have never extended into X-ray wavelengths, which uniquely trace high-energy phenomena. Here, we report an X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified, strongly lensed galaxy. This lensed galaxy, seen during the first third of the history of the Universe, is a low--mass, low--metallicity starburst with elevated X-ray emission, and is a likely analog to the first generation of galaxies. Our measurements yield insight into the role that X-ray emission from stellar populations in the first generation of galaxies may play in re-ionizing the Universe. This observation paves the way for future strong lensing-assisted X-ray studies of distant galaxies reaching orders of magnitude below the detection limits of current deep fields, and previews the depths that will be attainable with future X-ray observatories.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [3];  [8];  [5];  [7];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [4] more »;  [17];  [18] « less
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Astrophysics and Space Research; Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Astrophysics and Space Research
  3. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics
  5. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Oslo (Norway)
  8. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
  9. Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN), Copenhagen (Denmark)
  10. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  11. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  12. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  13. Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)
  14. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
  15. Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan)
  16. Univ. of Montreal, QC (Canada)
  17. Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia)
  18. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1605172
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1581428; OSTI ID: 1607381
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1910.05343; FERMILAB-PUB-19-540-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 2397-3366
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; NAS8-03060; NAS5-26555; AC02-07CH11359; GO7-18124; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Astronomy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2397-3366
Publisher:
Springer Nature
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Bayliss, M. B., McDonald, M., Sharon, K., Gladders, M. D., Florian, M., Chisholm, J., Dahle, H., Mahler, G., Paterno-Mahler, R., Rigby, J. R., Rivera-Thorsen, E., Whitaker, K. E., Allen, S., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Canning, R. E. A., Chiu, I., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Khullar, G., Reichardt, C., and Vieira, J. D. An X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified giant arc. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0888-7.
Bayliss, M. B., McDonald, M., Sharon, K., Gladders, M. D., Florian, M., Chisholm, J., Dahle, H., Mahler, G., Paterno-Mahler, R., Rigby, J. R., Rivera-Thorsen, E., Whitaker, K. E., Allen, S., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Canning, R. E. A., Chiu, I., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Khullar, G., Reichardt, C., & Vieira, J. D. An X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified giant arc. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0888-7
Bayliss, M. B., McDonald, M., Sharon, K., Gladders, M. D., Florian, M., Chisholm, J., Dahle, H., Mahler, G., Paterno-Mahler, R., Rigby, J. R., Rivera-Thorsen, E., Whitaker, K. E., Allen, S., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Canning, R. E. A., Chiu, I., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Khullar, G., Reichardt, C., and Vieira, J. D. Mon . "An X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified giant arc". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0888-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1605172.
@article{osti_1605172,
title = {An X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified giant arc},
author = {Bayliss, M. B. and McDonald, M. and Sharon, K. and Gladders, M. D. and Florian, M. and Chisholm, J. and Dahle, H. and Mahler, G. and Paterno-Mahler, R. and Rigby, J. R. and Rivera-Thorsen, E. and Whitaker, K. E. and Allen, S. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Brodwin, M. and Canning, R. E. A. and Chiu, I. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and Khullar, G. and Reichardt, C. and Vieira, J. D.},
abstractNote = {In the past decade, our understanding of how stars and galaxies formed during the first 5 billion years after the Big Bang has been revolutionized by observations that leverage gravitational lensing by intervening masses, which act as natural cosmic telescopes to magnify background sources. Previous studies have harnessed this effect to probe the distant universe at ultraviolet, optical, infrared and millimeter wavelengths. However, strong lensing studies of young, star-forming galaxies have never extended into X-ray wavelengths, which uniquely trace high-energy phenomena. Here, we report an X-ray detection of star formation in a highly magnified, strongly lensed galaxy. This lensed galaxy, seen during the first third of the history of the Universe, is a low--mass, low--metallicity starburst with elevated X-ray emission, and is a likely analog to the first generation of galaxies. Our measurements yield insight into the role that X-ray emission from stellar populations in the first generation of galaxies may play in re-ionizing the Universe. This observation paves the way for future strong lensing-assisted X-ray studies of distant galaxies reaching orders of magnitude below the detection limits of current deep fields, and previews the depths that will be attainable with future X-ray observatories.},
doi = {10.1038/s41550-019-0888-7},
journal = {Nature Astronomy},
number = 2,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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Cited by: 2 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: False-colour and X-ray images of the giant arc in SPT-CU2344-4243. The X-ray-emitting giant arc is shown relative to the centre of the foreground lensing galaxy cluster in a false-colour image at optical wavelengths. The inset shows Chandra X-ray 0.5-7 keV (left) and Hubble optical (right) images of themore » giant arc at a scale 1.5 times larger. The optical colours here are given by Hubble imaging data in the F850LP (red), F775W (green) and F475W (blue) filters. Two magenta circles indicate the locations of the X-ray emission from the giant arc in both inset panels. The lensing geometry of the giant arc is a pair of merging images, where the lower and upper halves of the arc are each a single image with mirror symmetry.« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Anatomy of a Cooling Flow: The Feedback Response to Pure Cooling in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster
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