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Title: Titanium 3 d ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in defective anatase

Abstract

This work focuses on the generation of ferromagnetism at the surface of anatase TiO2 films by low-energy ion irradiation. Controlled $Ar^+$-ion irradiation resulted in a thin (~10 ) nm ferromagnetic surface layer. The intrinsic origin and robustness of the magnetic order has been characterized by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at room temperature revealing that a Ti band is spin-polarized. These results, together with density functional theory calculations, indicate that Ti vacancy-interstitial pairs are responsible for the magnetic order. Superconducting quantum interference device measurements show the existence of a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a low remanent magnetization. Magnetic force microscopy reveals that this low remanence is due to oppositely aligned magnetic domains with magnetization vectors normal to the main surface. The weak domain-wall pinning, the magnetic anisotropy, together with the simplicity of the preparation method, open up interesting possibilities for future applications. As an example, single domain patterns of ~1 μm width and several μm length can be easily prepared.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [6];  [6]
  1. Univ. of Leipzig (Germany). Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Felix-Bloch-Inst. for Solid-state Physics
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL)
  4. Leibniz Inst. of Surface Engineering (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)
  5. Leibniz Inst. of Surface Engineering (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)
  6. Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1605015
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1635183
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 31047526-SFB 762
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Defects; Ferromagnetism; Irradiation effects; Magnetic anisotropy; Magnetic domains; Density functional calculations; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

Citation Formats

Stiller, Markus, N'Diaye, Alpha T., Ohldag, Hendrik, Barzola-Quiquia, José, Esquinazi, Pablo D., Amelal, Thomas, Bundesmann, Carsten, Spemann, Daniel, Trautmann, Martin, Chassé, Angelika, Hamed, Hichem Ben, Adeagbo, Waheed A., and Hergert, Wolfram. Titanium 3d ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in defective anatase. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevb.101.014412.
Stiller, Markus, N'Diaye, Alpha T., Ohldag, Hendrik, Barzola-Quiquia, José, Esquinazi, Pablo D., Amelal, Thomas, Bundesmann, Carsten, Spemann, Daniel, Trautmann, Martin, Chassé, Angelika, Hamed, Hichem Ben, Adeagbo, Waheed A., & Hergert, Wolfram. Titanium 3d ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in defective anatase. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.101.014412
Stiller, Markus, N'Diaye, Alpha T., Ohldag, Hendrik, Barzola-Quiquia, José, Esquinazi, Pablo D., Amelal, Thomas, Bundesmann, Carsten, Spemann, Daniel, Trautmann, Martin, Chassé, Angelika, Hamed, Hichem Ben, Adeagbo, Waheed A., and Hergert, Wolfram. Thu . "Titanium 3d ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in defective anatase". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.101.014412. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1605015.
@article{osti_1605015,
title = {Titanium 3d ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in defective anatase},
author = {Stiller, Markus and N'Diaye, Alpha T. and Ohldag, Hendrik and Barzola-Quiquia, José and Esquinazi, Pablo D. and Amelal, Thomas and Bundesmann, Carsten and Spemann, Daniel and Trautmann, Martin and Chassé, Angelika and Hamed, Hichem Ben and Adeagbo, Waheed A. and Hergert, Wolfram},
abstractNote = {This work focuses on the generation of ferromagnetism at the surface of anatase TiO2 films by low-energy ion irradiation. Controlled $Ar^+$-ion irradiation resulted in a thin (~10 ) nm ferromagnetic surface layer. The intrinsic origin and robustness of the magnetic order has been characterized by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at room temperature revealing that a Ti band is spin-polarized. These results, together with density functional theory calculations, indicate that Ti vacancy-interstitial pairs are responsible for the magnetic order. Superconducting quantum interference device measurements show the existence of a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a low remanent magnetization. Magnetic force microscopy reveals that this low remanence is due to oppositely aligned magnetic domains with magnetization vectors normal to the main surface. The weak domain-wall pinning, the magnetic anisotropy, together with the simplicity of the preparation method, open up interesting possibilities for future applications. As an example, single domain patterns of ~1 μm width and several μm length can be easily prepared.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.101.014412},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 1,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

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