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Title: Influence of Sea-Ice Anomalies on Antarctic Precipitation Using Source Attribution in the Community Earth System Model

Abstract

We conduct sensitivity experiments using a general circulation model that has an explicit water source tagging capability forced by prescribed composites of pre-industrial sea ice concentrations (SIC) and corresponding sea surface temperatures (SST) to understand the impact of sea ice anomalies on regional evaporation, moisture transport, and source–receptor relationships for precipitation over Antarctica. Surface sensible heat fluxes, evaporation, and column-integrated water vapor are larger over Southern Ocean areas with lower SIC, but changes in Antarctic precipitation and its source attribution with SICs reflect a strong spatial variability. Among the tagged source regions, the Southern Ocean (south of 50°S) contributes the most (40%) to the Antarctic total precipitation, followed by more northerly ocean basins, most notably the South Pacific Ocean (27%), South Indian Ocean (16%) and South Atlantic Ocean (11%). Comparing two experiments prescribed with high and low pre-industrial SIC, respectively, the annual mean Antarctic precipitation is about 150 Gt year-1 more in the lower SIC case than in the higher SIC case. This difference is larger than the model-simulated interannual variability of Antarctic precipitation (99 Gt year-1). The contrast in contribution from the Southern Ocean, 102 Gt year-1, is even more significant, compared to the interannual variability of 35 Gtmore » year-1 in Antarctic precipitation that originates from the Southern Ocean. The horizontal transport pathways from individual vapor source regions to Antarctica are largely determined by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Vapor from lower latitude source regions takes elevated pathways to Antarctica. In contrast, vapor from the Southern Ocean moves southward within the lower troposphere to the Antarctic continent, so the contribution of nearby sources also depends on regional coastal topography. The impact of sea ice anomalies on regional Antarctic precipitation also depends on atmospheric circulation changes that result from the prescribed composite SIC/SST perturbations. In particular, regional wind anomalies along with surface evaporation changes determine regional shifts in the zonal and meridional moisture fluxes that can explain some of the resultant precipitation changes. This study highlights the importance of better understanding changes in water transport toward Antarctica under natural variability.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [1]
  1. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  2. LOS ALAMOS NATL LAB
  3. Utrecht University
  4. University of Colorado at Boulder
  5. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1605001
Report Number(s):
[PNNL-SA-147435]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC05-76RL01830]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Cryosphere
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 2]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Antarctic sea ice, Preciptiation, Water vapor, source attribution, atmospheric circulation

Citation Formats

Wang, Hailong, Fyke, Jeremy G., Lenaerts, Jan, Nusbaumer, Jesse M., Singh, Hansi AK, Noone, David C., Rasch, Philip J., and Zhang, Rudong. Influence of Sea-Ice Anomalies on Antarctic Precipitation Using Source Attribution in the Community Earth System Model. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.5194/tc-14-429-2020.
Wang, Hailong, Fyke, Jeremy G., Lenaerts, Jan, Nusbaumer, Jesse M., Singh, Hansi AK, Noone, David C., Rasch, Philip J., & Zhang, Rudong. Influence of Sea-Ice Anomalies on Antarctic Precipitation Using Source Attribution in the Community Earth System Model. United States. doi:10.5194/tc-14-429-2020.
Wang, Hailong, Fyke, Jeremy G., Lenaerts, Jan, Nusbaumer, Jesse M., Singh, Hansi AK, Noone, David C., Rasch, Philip J., and Zhang, Rudong. Tue . "Influence of Sea-Ice Anomalies on Antarctic Precipitation Using Source Attribution in the Community Earth System Model". United States. doi:10.5194/tc-14-429-2020.
@article{osti_1605001,
title = {Influence of Sea-Ice Anomalies on Antarctic Precipitation Using Source Attribution in the Community Earth System Model},
author = {Wang, Hailong and Fyke, Jeremy G. and Lenaerts, Jan and Nusbaumer, Jesse M. and Singh, Hansi AK and Noone, David C. and Rasch, Philip J. and Zhang, Rudong},
abstractNote = {We conduct sensitivity experiments using a general circulation model that has an explicit water source tagging capability forced by prescribed composites of pre-industrial sea ice concentrations (SIC) and corresponding sea surface temperatures (SST) to understand the impact of sea ice anomalies on regional evaporation, moisture transport, and source–receptor relationships for precipitation over Antarctica. Surface sensible heat fluxes, evaporation, and column-integrated water vapor are larger over Southern Ocean areas with lower SIC, but changes in Antarctic precipitation and its source attribution with SICs reflect a strong spatial variability. Among the tagged source regions, the Southern Ocean (south of 50°S) contributes the most (40%) to the Antarctic total precipitation, followed by more northerly ocean basins, most notably the South Pacific Ocean (27%), South Indian Ocean (16%) and South Atlantic Ocean (11%). Comparing two experiments prescribed with high and low pre-industrial SIC, respectively, the annual mean Antarctic precipitation is about 150 Gt year-1 more in the lower SIC case than in the higher SIC case. This difference is larger than the model-simulated interannual variability of Antarctic precipitation (99 Gt year-1). The contrast in contribution from the Southern Ocean, 102 Gt year-1, is even more significant, compared to the interannual variability of 35 Gt year-1 in Antarctic precipitation that originates from the Southern Ocean. The horizontal transport pathways from individual vapor source regions to Antarctica are largely determined by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Vapor from lower latitude source regions takes elevated pathways to Antarctica. In contrast, vapor from the Southern Ocean moves southward within the lower troposphere to the Antarctic continent, so the contribution of nearby sources also depends on regional coastal topography. The impact of sea ice anomalies on regional Antarctic precipitation also depends on atmospheric circulation changes that result from the prescribed composite SIC/SST perturbations. In particular, regional wind anomalies along with surface evaporation changes determine regional shifts in the zonal and meridional moisture fluxes that can explain some of the resultant precipitation changes. This study highlights the importance of better understanding changes in water transport toward Antarctica under natural variability.},
doi = {10.5194/tc-14-429-2020},
journal = {The Cryosphere},
number = [2],
volume = [14],
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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