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Title: Extending light WIMP searches to single scintillation photons in LUX

Abstract

Here, we present a novel analysis technique for liquid xenon time projection chambers that allows for a lower threshold by relying on events with a prompt scintillation signal consisting of single detected photons. The energy threshold of the LUX dark matter experiment is primarily determined by the smallest scintillation response detectable, which previously required a twofold coincidence signal in its photomultiplier arrays, enforced in data analysis. The technique presented here exploits the double photoelectron emission effect observed in some photomultiplier models at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths. We demonstrate this analysis using an electron recoil calibration dataset and place new constraints on the spin-independent scattering cross section of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) down to 2.5 GeV/c 2 WIMP mass using the 2013 LUX dataset. This new technique is promising to enhance light WIMP and astrophysical neutrino searches in next-generation liquid xenon experiments.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); Funda¸cao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
[LUX Collaboration]
OSTI Identifier:
1604899
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1599491; OSTI ID: 1603624
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231; AC05-06OR23100; AC52-07NA27344; FG01-91ER40618; FG02-08ER41549; FG02-11ER41738; FG02-91ER40674; FG02-91ER40688; FG02- 95ER40917; NA0000979; SC0006605; SC0010010; SC0015535; SC0019066; PHY-0750671; PHY-0801536; PHY-1003660; PHY-1004661; PHY1102470; PHY-1312561; PHY-1347449; PHY-1505868; PHY-1636738; RA0350; PTCD/FIS-PAR/28567/2017; M126369B; T93036D; ST/N000242/1; ST/S000739/1; ST/N000277/1; ST/S000747/1; ST/N000285/1; ST/S000666/1; SC0010813]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 4]; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
dark matter; particle dark matter; weakly interacting massive particles; dark matter detectors

Citation Formats

Akerib, D. S., Alsum, S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Balajthy, J., Baxter, A., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Boxer, B., Brás, P., Burdin, S., Byram, D., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Cutter, J. E., de Viveiros, L., Druszkiewicz, E., Fallon, S. R., Fan, A., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Genovesi, J., Ghag, C., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Gwilliam, C., Hall, C. R., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Jacobsen, R. G., Jahangir, O., Ji, W., Kamdin, K., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Korolkova, E. V., Kravitz, S., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Leason, E., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Liao, J., Lin, J., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., López Paredes, B., Manalaysay, A., Mannino, R. L., Marangou, N., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. M., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Naylor, A., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., Nilima, A., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Palladino, K. J., Pease, E. K., Riffard, Q., Rischbieter, G. R. C., Rhyne, C., Rossiter, P., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Solmaz, M., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, R., Taylor, W. C., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Utku, U., Uvarov, S., Vacheret, A., Velan, V., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Woodward, D., Xu, J., and Zhang, C. Extending light WIMP searches to single scintillation photons in LUX. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevd.101.042001.
Akerib, D. S., Alsum, S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Balajthy, J., Baxter, A., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Boxer, B., Brás, P., Burdin, S., Byram, D., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Cutter, J. E., de Viveiros, L., Druszkiewicz, E., Fallon, S. R., Fan, A., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Genovesi, J., Ghag, C., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Gwilliam, C., Hall, C. R., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Jacobsen, R. G., Jahangir, O., Ji, W., Kamdin, K., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Korolkova, E. V., Kravitz, S., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Leason, E., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Liao, J., Lin, J., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., López Paredes, B., Manalaysay, A., Mannino, R. L., Marangou, N., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. M., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Naylor, A., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., Nilima, A., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Palladino, K. J., Pease, E. K., Riffard, Q., Rischbieter, G. R. C., Rhyne, C., Rossiter, P., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Solmaz, M., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, R., Taylor, W. C., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Utku, U., Uvarov, S., Vacheret, A., Velan, V., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Woodward, D., Xu, J., & Zhang, C. Extending light WIMP searches to single scintillation photons in LUX. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevd.101.042001.
Akerib, D. S., Alsum, S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Balajthy, J., Baxter, A., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Boxer, B., Brás, P., Burdin, S., Byram, D., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Cutter, J. E., de Viveiros, L., Druszkiewicz, E., Fallon, S. R., Fan, A., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Genovesi, J., Ghag, C., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Gwilliam, C., Hall, C. R., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Jacobsen, R. G., Jahangir, O., Ji, W., Kamdin, K., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Korolkova, E. V., Kravitz, S., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Leason, E., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Liao, J., Lin, J., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., López Paredes, B., Manalaysay, A., Mannino, R. L., Marangou, N., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. M., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Naylor, A., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., Nilima, A., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Palladino, K. J., Pease, E. K., Riffard, Q., Rischbieter, G. R. C., Rhyne, C., Rossiter, P., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Solmaz, M., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, R., Taylor, W. C., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Utku, U., Uvarov, S., Vacheret, A., Velan, V., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Woodward, D., Xu, J., and Zhang, C. Mon . "Extending light WIMP searches to single scintillation photons in LUX". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevd.101.042001.
@article{osti_1604899,
title = {Extending light WIMP searches to single scintillation photons in LUX},
author = {Akerib, D. S. and Alsum, S. and Araújo, H. M. and Bai, X. and Balajthy, J. and Baxter, A. and Beltrame, P. and Bernard, E. P. and Bernstein, A. and Biesiadzinski, T. P. and Boulton, E. M. and Boxer, B. and Brás, P. and Burdin, S. and Byram, D. and Carmona-Benitez, M. C. and Chan, C. and Cutter, J. E. and de Viveiros, L. and Druszkiewicz, E. and Fallon, S. R. and Fan, A. and Fiorucci, S. and Gaitskell, R. J. and Genovesi, J. and Ghag, C. and Gilchriese, M. G. D. and Gwilliam, C. and Hall, C. R. and Haselschwardt, S. J. and Hertel, S. A. and Hogan, D. P. and Horn, M. and Huang, D. Q. and Ignarra, C. M. and Jacobsen, R. G. and Jahangir, O. and Ji, W. and Kamdin, K. and Kazkaz, K. and Khaitan, D. and Korolkova, E. V. and Kravitz, S. and Kudryavtsev, V. A. and Leason, E. and Lenardo, B. G. and Lesko, K. T. and Liao, J. and Lin, J. and Lindote, A. and Lopes, M. I. and López Paredes, B. and Manalaysay, A. and Mannino, R. L. and Marangou, N. and Marzioni, M. F. and McKinsey, D. N. and Mei, D. M. and Moongweluwan, M. and Morad, J. A. and Murphy, A. St. J. and Naylor, A. and Nehrkorn, C. and Nelson, H. N. and Neves, F. and Nilima, A. and Oliver-Mallory, K. C. and Palladino, K. J. and Pease, E. K. and Riffard, Q. and Rischbieter, G. R. C. and Rhyne, C. and Rossiter, P. and Shaw, S. and Shutt, T. A. and Silva, C. and Solmaz, M. and Solovov, V. N. and Sorensen, P. and Sumner, T. J. and Szydagis, M. and Taylor, D. J. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, W. C. and Tennyson, B. P. and Terman, P. A. and Tiedt, D. R. and To, W. H. and Tripathi, M. and Tvrznikova, L. and Utku, U. and Uvarov, S. and Vacheret, A. and Velan, V. and Webb, R. C. and White, J. T. and Whitis, T. J. and Witherell, M. S. and Wolfs, F. L. H. and Woodward, D. and Xu, J. and Zhang, C.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present a novel analysis technique for liquid xenon time projection chambers that allows for a lower threshold by relying on events with a prompt scintillation signal consisting of single detected photons. The energy threshold of the LUX dark matter experiment is primarily determined by the smallest scintillation response detectable, which previously required a twofold coincidence signal in its photomultiplier arrays, enforced in data analysis. The technique presented here exploits the double photoelectron emission effect observed in some photomultiplier models at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths. We demonstrate this analysis using an electron recoil calibration dataset and place new constraints on the spin-independent scattering cross section of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) down to 2.5 GeV/c2 WIMP mass using the 2013 LUX dataset. This new technique is promising to enhance light WIMP and astrophysical neutrino searches in next-generation liquid xenon experiments.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevd.101.042001},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = [4],
volume = [101],
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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