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Title: Fast Relaxation on Qutrit Transitions of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Nanodiamonds

Abstract

Thanks to their versatility, nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers in nanodiamonds have been widely adopted as nanoscale sensors. However, their sensitivities are limited by their short coherence times relative to N-Vs in bulk diamond. A more complete understanding of the origins of decoherence in nanodiamonds is critical to improving their performance. Here we present measurements of fast spin relaxation on qutrit transitions between the energy eigenstates composed of the ms = | ± 1 $$\rangle$$ states of the N- V- electronic ground state in approximately 40-nm nanodiamonds under ambient conditions. For frequency splittings between these states of 20 MHz or less the maximum theoretically achievable coherence time of the N-V spin is approximately 2 orders of magnitude shorter than would be expected if the N-V spin is treated as a qubit. We attribute this fast relaxation to electric field noise. We observe a strong falloff of the qutrit relaxation rate with the splitting between the states, suggesting that, whenever possible, measurements with N-Vs in nanodiamonds should be performed at moderate axial magnetic fields ( > 60 G). We also observe that the qutrit relaxation rate changes with time. These findings indicate that surface electric field noise is a major source of decoherence for N-V s in nanodiamonds.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
Contributing Org.:
National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) program
OSTI Identifier:
1603645
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1603206
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0020313
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Gardill, A., Cambria, M. C., and Kolkowitz, S. Fast Relaxation on Qutrit Transitions of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Nanodiamonds. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034010.
Gardill, A., Cambria, M. C., & Kolkowitz, S. Fast Relaxation on Qutrit Transitions of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Nanodiamonds. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034010
Gardill, A., Cambria, M. C., and Kolkowitz, S. Wed . "Fast Relaxation on Qutrit Transitions of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Nanodiamonds". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034010. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1603645.
@article{osti_1603645,
title = {Fast Relaxation on Qutrit Transitions of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Nanodiamonds},
author = {Gardill, A. and Cambria, M. C. and Kolkowitz, S.},
abstractNote = {Thanks to their versatility, nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers in nanodiamonds have been widely adopted as nanoscale sensors. However, their sensitivities are limited by their short coherence times relative to N-Vs in bulk diamond. A more complete understanding of the origins of decoherence in nanodiamonds is critical to improving their performance. Here we present measurements of fast spin relaxation on qutrit transitions between the energy eigenstates composed of the ms = | ± 1 $\rangle$ states of the N- V- electronic ground state in approximately 40-nm nanodiamonds under ambient conditions. For frequency splittings between these states of 20 MHz or less the maximum theoretically achievable coherence time of the N-V spin is approximately 2 orders of magnitude shorter than would be expected if the N-V spin is treated as a qubit. We attribute this fast relaxation to electric field noise. We observe a strong falloff of the qutrit relaxation rate with the splitting between the states, suggesting that, whenever possible, measurements with N-Vs in nanodiamonds should be performed at moderate axial magnetic fields ( > 60 G). We also observe that the qutrit relaxation rate changes with time. These findings indicate that surface electric field noise is a major source of decoherence for N-V s in nanodiamonds.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034010},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 3,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

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