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Title: Reversible writing of high-mobility and high-carrier-density doping patterns in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures

Abstract

A key feature of two-dimensional materials is that the sign and concentration of their carriers can be externally controlled with techniques such as electrostatic gating. However, conventional electrostatic gating has limitations, including a maximum carrier density set by the dielectric breakdown, and ionic liquid gating and direct chemical doping also suffer from drawbacks. In this work, we show that an electron-beam-induced doping technique can be used to reversibly write high-resolution doping patterns in hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) van der Waals heterostructures. The doped MoS 2 device exhibits an order of magnitude decrease of subthreshold swing compared with the device before doping, whereas the doped graphene devices demonstrate a previously inaccessible regime of high carrier concentration and high mobility, even at room temperature. We also show that the approach can be used to write high-quality p–n junctions and nanoscale doping patterns, illustrating that the technique can create nanoscale circuitry in van der Waals heterostructures.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoScience Inst., Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1603604
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; 1542741; 1807233
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Electronics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2520-1131
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
electronic properties and materials; two-dimensional materials

Citation Formats

Shi, Wu, Kahn, Salman, Jiang, Lili, Wang, Sheng-Yu, Tsai, Hsin-Zon, Wong, Dillon, Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, Wang, Feng, Crommie, Michael F., and Zettl, Alex. Reversible writing of high-mobility and high-carrier-density doping patterns in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1038/s41928-019-0351-x.
Shi, Wu, Kahn, Salman, Jiang, Lili, Wang, Sheng-Yu, Tsai, Hsin-Zon, Wong, Dillon, Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, Wang, Feng, Crommie, Michael F., & Zettl, Alex. Reversible writing of high-mobility and high-carrier-density doping patterns in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. United States. doi:10.1038/s41928-019-0351-x.
Shi, Wu, Kahn, Salman, Jiang, Lili, Wang, Sheng-Yu, Tsai, Hsin-Zon, Wong, Dillon, Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, Wang, Feng, Crommie, Michael F., and Zettl, Alex. Mon . "Reversible writing of high-mobility and high-carrier-density doping patterns in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures". United States. doi:10.1038/s41928-019-0351-x.
@article{osti_1603604,
title = {Reversible writing of high-mobility and high-carrier-density doping patterns in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures},
author = {Shi, Wu and Kahn, Salman and Jiang, Lili and Wang, Sheng-Yu and Tsai, Hsin-Zon and Wong, Dillon and Taniguchi, Takashi and Watanabe, Kenji and Wang, Feng and Crommie, Michael F. and Zettl, Alex},
abstractNote = {A key feature of two-dimensional materials is that the sign and concentration of their carriers can be externally controlled with techniques such as electrostatic gating. However, conventional electrostatic gating has limitations, including a maximum carrier density set by the dielectric breakdown, and ionic liquid gating and direct chemical doping also suffer from drawbacks. In this work, we show that an electron-beam-induced doping technique can be used to reversibly write high-resolution doping patterns in hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) van der Waals heterostructures. The doped MoS2 device exhibits an order of magnitude decrease of subthreshold swing compared with the device before doping, whereas the doped graphene devices demonstrate a previously inaccessible regime of high carrier concentration and high mobility, even at room temperature. We also show that the approach can be used to write high-quality p–n junctions and nanoscale doping patterns, illustrating that the technique can create nanoscale circuitry in van der Waals heterostructures.},
doi = {10.1038/s41928-019-0351-x},
journal = {Nature Electronics},
number = 2,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

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