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Title: Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors

Abstract

Liquid argon time projection chamber technology is an attractive choice for large neutrino detectors, as it provides a high-resolution active target and it is expected to be scalable to very large masses. Consequently, it has been chosen as the technology for the first module of the DUNE far detector. However, the fiducial mass required for "far detectors" of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments far exceeds what has been demonstrated so far. Scaling to this larger mass, as well as the requirement for underground construction places a number of additional constraints on the design. A prototype 35-ton cryostat was built at Fermi National Acccelerator Laboratory to test the functionality of the components foreseen to be used in a very large far detector. The Phase I run, completed in early 2014, demonstrated that liquid argon could be maintained at sufficient purity in a membrane cryostat. A time projection chamber was installed for the Phase II run, which collected data in February and March of 2016. The Phase II run was a test of the modular anode plane assemblies with wrapped wires, cold readout electronics, and integrated photon detection systems. While the details of the design do not match exactly thosemore » chosen for the DUNE far detector, the 35-ton TPC prototype is a demonstration of the functionality of the basic components. Measurements are performed using the Phase II data to extract signal and noise characteristics and to align the detector components. A measurement of the electron lifetime is presented, and a novel technique for measuring a track's position based on pulse properties is described.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [2];  [5];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [9];  [1];  [5];  [10];  [10];  [11];  [4];  [12];  [10] more »;  [13];  [14];  [8];  [2];  [13];  [15];  [8];  [16];  [6];  [8];  [1];  [4];  [13];  [16];  [1];  [17];  [7];  [13];  [18];  [19];  [1];  [5];  [20];  [14];  [1];  [20];  [21];  [17];  [1];  [11];  [13];  [22];  [23];  [1];  [24];  [8];  [25];  [26];  [13];  [13];  [9];  [4];  [20];  [13];  [27];  [27];  [13];  [14];  [19];  [7];  [1];  [8];  [1];  [1] « less
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)
  3. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  5. Lancaster Univ., Bailrigg (United Kingdom)
  6. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  7. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  8. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  9. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  10. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  11. Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
  12. Univ. Federal de Goias (Brazil)
  13. Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
  14. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  15. Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)
  16. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
  17. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  18. Univ. Federal do ABC, Santo André (Brazil)
  19. Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
  20. Univ. Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)
  21. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  22. Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)
  23. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  24. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)
  25. National Centre for Nuclear Research (Poland)
  26. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)
  27. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP); National Science foundation (NSF); Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC); Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)
OSTI Identifier:
1602989
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1633951; OSTI ID: 1756163
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1912.08739; FERMILAB-PUB-20-092-ND
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221; oai:inspirehep.net:1771604
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; ST/M002667/1; AC02-76SF00515; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 03; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics; Liquid detectors; Time projection chambers

Citation Formats

Adams, D. L., Baird, M., Barr, G., Barros, N., Blake, A., Blaufuss, E., Booth, A., Brailsford, D., Buchanan, N., Carls, B., Chen, H., Convery, M., Geronimo, G. De, Dealtry, T., Dharmapalan, R., Djurcic, Z., Fowler, J., Glavin, S., Gomes, R. A., Goodman, M. C., Graham, M., Greenler, L., Hahn, A., Hartnell, J., Herbst, R., Higuera, A., Himmel, A., Insler, J., Jacobsen, J., Junk, T., Kirby, B., Klein, J., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Kutter, T., Li, Y., Li, X., Lin, S., McConkey, N., Moura, C. A., Mufson, S., Nambiar, N., Nowak, J., Nunes, M., Paulos, R., Qian, X., Rodrigues, O., Sands, W., Santucci, G., Sharma, R., Sinev, G., Spooner, N. J. C., Stancu, I., Stefan, D., Stewart, J., Stock, J., Strauss, T., Sulej, R., Sun, Y., Thiesse, M., Thompson, L. F., Tsai, Y. T., Berg, R. Van, Vieira, T., Wallbank, M., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Warburton, T. K., Wenman, D., Whittington, D., Wilson, R. J., Worcester, M., Yang, T., Yu, B., and Zhang, C.. Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/15/03/P03035.
Adams, D. L., Baird, M., Barr, G., Barros, N., Blake, A., Blaufuss, E., Booth, A., Brailsford, D., Buchanan, N., Carls, B., Chen, H., Convery, M., Geronimo, G. De, Dealtry, T., Dharmapalan, R., Djurcic, Z., Fowler, J., Glavin, S., Gomes, R. A., Goodman, M. C., Graham, M., Greenler, L., Hahn, A., Hartnell, J., Herbst, R., Higuera, A., Himmel, A., Insler, J., Jacobsen, J., Junk, T., Kirby, B., Klein, J., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Kutter, T., Li, Y., Li, X., Lin, S., McConkey, N., Moura, C. A., Mufson, S., Nambiar, N., Nowak, J., Nunes, M., Paulos, R., Qian, X., Rodrigues, O., Sands, W., Santucci, G., Sharma, R., Sinev, G., Spooner, N. J. C., Stancu, I., Stefan, D., Stewart, J., Stock, J., Strauss, T., Sulej, R., Sun, Y., Thiesse, M., Thompson, L. F., Tsai, Y. T., Berg, R. Van, Vieira, T., Wallbank, M., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Warburton, T. K., Wenman, D., Whittington, D., Wilson, R. J., Worcester, M., Yang, T., Yu, B., & Zhang, C.. Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/15/03/P03035
Adams, D. L., Baird, M., Barr, G., Barros, N., Blake, A., Blaufuss, E., Booth, A., Brailsford, D., Buchanan, N., Carls, B., Chen, H., Convery, M., Geronimo, G. De, Dealtry, T., Dharmapalan, R., Djurcic, Z., Fowler, J., Glavin, S., Gomes, R. A., Goodman, M. C., Graham, M., Greenler, L., Hahn, A., Hartnell, J., Herbst, R., Higuera, A., Himmel, A., Insler, J., Jacobsen, J., Junk, T., Kirby, B., Klein, J., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Kutter, T., Li, Y., Li, X., Lin, S., McConkey, N., Moura, C. A., Mufson, S., Nambiar, N., Nowak, J., Nunes, M., Paulos, R., Qian, X., Rodrigues, O., Sands, W., Santucci, G., Sharma, R., Sinev, G., Spooner, N. J. C., Stancu, I., Stefan, D., Stewart, J., Stock, J., Strauss, T., Sulej, R., Sun, Y., Thiesse, M., Thompson, L. F., Tsai, Y. T., Berg, R. Van, Vieira, T., Wallbank, M., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Warburton, T. K., Wenman, D., Whittington, D., Wilson, R. J., Worcester, M., Yang, T., Yu, B., and Zhang, C.. Tue . "Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/15/03/P03035. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1602989.
@article{osti_1602989,
title = {Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors},
author = {Adams, D. L. and Baird, M. and Barr, G. and Barros, N. and Blake, A. and Blaufuss, E. and Booth, A. and Brailsford, D. and Buchanan, N. and Carls, B. and Chen, H. and Convery, M. and Geronimo, G. De and Dealtry, T. and Dharmapalan, R. and Djurcic, Z. and Fowler, J. and Glavin, S. and Gomes, R. A. and Goodman, M. C. and Graham, M. and Greenler, L. and Hahn, A. and Hartnell, J. and Herbst, R. and Higuera, A. and Himmel, A. and Insler, J. and Jacobsen, J. and Junk, T. and Kirby, B. and Klein, J. and Kudryavtsev, V. A. and Kutter, T. and Li, Y. and Li, X. and Lin, S. and McConkey, N. and Moura, C. A. and Mufson, S. and Nambiar, N. and Nowak, J. and Nunes, M. and Paulos, R. and Qian, X. and Rodrigues, O. and Sands, W. and Santucci, G. and Sharma, R. and Sinev, G. and Spooner, N. J. C. and Stancu, I. and Stefan, D. and Stewart, J. and Stock, J. and Strauss, T. and Sulej, R. and Sun, Y. and Thiesse, M. and Thompson, L. F. and Tsai, Y. T. and Berg, R. Van and Vieira, T. and Wallbank, M. and Wang, H. and Wang, Y. and Warburton, T. K. and Wenman, D. and Whittington, D. and Wilson, R. J. and Worcester, M. and Yang, T. and Yu, B. and Zhang, C.},
abstractNote = {Liquid argon time projection chamber technology is an attractive choice for large neutrino detectors, as it provides a high-resolution active target and it is expected to be scalable to very large masses. Consequently, it has been chosen as the technology for the first module of the DUNE far detector. However, the fiducial mass required for "far detectors" of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments far exceeds what has been demonstrated so far. Scaling to this larger mass, as well as the requirement for underground construction places a number of additional constraints on the design. A prototype 35-ton cryostat was built at Fermi National Acccelerator Laboratory to test the functionality of the components foreseen to be used in a very large far detector. The Phase I run, completed in early 2014, demonstrated that liquid argon could be maintained at sufficient purity in a membrane cryostat. A time projection chamber was installed for the Phase II run, which collected data in February and March of 2016. The Phase II run was a test of the modular anode plane assemblies with wrapped wires, cold readout electronics, and integrated photon detection systems. While the details of the design do not match exactly those chosen for the DUNE far detector, the 35-ton TPC prototype is a demonstration of the functionality of the basic components. Measurements are performed using the Phase II data to extract signal and noise characteristics and to align the detector components. A measurement of the electron lifetime is presented, and a novel technique for measuring a track's position based on pulse properties is described.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/15/03/P03035},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
number = 03,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

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