skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Formation of SMBH seeds in Population III star clusters through collisions: the importance of mass loss

Abstract

ABSTRACT Runaway collisions in dense clusters may lead to the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds, and this process can be further enhanced by accretion, as recent models of SMBH seed formation in Population III star clusters have shown. This may explain the presence of SMBHs already at high redshift, z > 6. However, in this context, mass loss during collisions was not considered and could play an important role for the formation of the SMBH seed. Here, we study the effect of mass loss, due to collisions of protostars, in the formation and evolution of a massive object in a dense primordial cluster. We consider both constant mass-loss fractions as well as analytic models based on the stellar structure of the collision components. Our calculations indicate that mass loss can significantly affect the final mass of the possible SMBH seed. Considering a constant mass loss of 5 per cent for every collision, we can lose between 60–80 per cent of the total mass that is obtained if mass loss were not considered. Using instead analytical prescriptions for mass loss, the mass of the final object is reduced by 15–40 per cent, depending on the accretion model for the cluster we study. Altogether, we obtain masses of the order of $$10^4\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$$, which are still massive enough to be SMBH seeds.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3]
  1. Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
  2. Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitário de Santiago, P-3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra, Portugal
  3. Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany, Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Wissenschaftliches Rechnen, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 205, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1602566
Grant/Contract Number:  
[UID/EEA/50008/2019]
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 493 Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Alister Seguel, P. J., Schleicher, D. R. G., Boekholt, T. C. N., Fellhauer, M., and Klessen, R. S. Formation of SMBH seeds in Population III star clusters through collisions: the importance of mass loss. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa456.
Alister Seguel, P. J., Schleicher, D. R. G., Boekholt, T. C. N., Fellhauer, M., & Klessen, R. S. Formation of SMBH seeds in Population III star clusters through collisions: the importance of mass loss. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa456.
Alister Seguel, P. J., Schleicher, D. R. G., Boekholt, T. C. N., Fellhauer, M., and Klessen, R. S. Mon . "Formation of SMBH seeds in Population III star clusters through collisions: the importance of mass loss". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa456.
@article{osti_1602566,
title = {Formation of SMBH seeds in Population III star clusters through collisions: the importance of mass loss},
author = {Alister Seguel, P. J. and Schleicher, D. R. G. and Boekholt, T. C. N. and Fellhauer, M. and Klessen, R. S.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT Runaway collisions in dense clusters may lead to the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds, and this process can be further enhanced by accretion, as recent models of SMBH seed formation in Population III star clusters have shown. This may explain the presence of SMBHs already at high redshift, z > 6. However, in this context, mass loss during collisions was not considered and could play an important role for the formation of the SMBH seed. Here, we study the effect of mass loss, due to collisions of protostars, in the formation and evolution of a massive object in a dense primordial cluster. We consider both constant mass-loss fractions as well as analytic models based on the stellar structure of the collision components. Our calculations indicate that mass loss can significantly affect the final mass of the possible SMBH seed. Considering a constant mass loss of 5 per cent for every collision, we can lose between 60–80 per cent of the total mass that is obtained if mass loss were not considered. Using instead analytical prescriptions for mass loss, the mass of the final object is reduced by 15–40 per cent, depending on the accretion model for the cluster we study. Altogether, we obtain masses of the order of $10^4\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, which are still massive enough to be SMBH seeds.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/staa456},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = [2],
volume = [493],
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa456

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Collisions and close encounters involving massive main-sequence stars
journal, March 2006


Formation of the First Supermassive Black Holes
journal, October 2003

  • Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 596, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/377529

On the onset of runaway stellar collisions in dense star clusters - II. Hydrodynamics of three-body interactions: Hydrodynamics of three-body interactions
journal, December 2009

  • Gaburov, Evghenii; Lombardi Jr., James C.; Zwart, Simon Portegies
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 402, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15900.x

The Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment
journal, September 2013


High-redshift formation and evolution of central massive objects - II. The census of BH seeds: Formation of CMOs-II
journal, February 2012


Multi-physics simulations using a hierarchical interchangeable software interface
journal, March 2013

  • Portegies Zwart, Simon F.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; van Elteren, Arjen
  • Computer Physics Communications, Vol. 184, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2012.09.024

Seeding high-redshift QSOs by collisional runaway in primordial star clusters
journal, June 2015

  • Katz, Harley; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 451, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1048

Black Hole Models for Active Galactic Nuclei
journal, September 1984


Formation of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in the Presence of Far-Ultraviolet Radiation
journal, July 2014


On the Initial mass Function of Low-Metallicity Stars: the Importance of dust Cooling
journal, March 2013


Titans of the early Universe: The Prato statement on the origin of the first supermassive black holes
journal, January 2019

  • Woods, Tyrone E.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Bromm, Volker
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 36
  • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2019.14

A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085
journal, June 2011

  • Mortlock, Daniel J.; Warren, Stephen J.; Venemans, Bram P.
  • Nature, Vol. 474, Issue 7353
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10159

Formation of massive seed black holes via collisions and accretion
journal, January 2018

  • Boekholt, T. C. N.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Fellhauer, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty208

Formation of intermediate-mass black holes through runaway collisions in the first star clusters
journal, August 2017

  • Sakurai, Yuya; Yoshida, Naoki; Fujii, Michiko S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2044

Black hole formation in the early Universe
journal, June 2013

  • Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 433, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt834

Supermassive black hole formation by direct collapse: keeping protogalactic gas H 2 free in dark matter haloes with virial temperatures T vir > rsim 10 4 K
journal, February 2010


Effects of binary stellar populations on direct collapse black hole formation
journal, February 2017

  • Agarwal, Bhaskar; Cullen, Fergus; Khochfar, Sadegh
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 468, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slx028

Feedback-regulated supermassive black hole seed formation
journal, June 2014

  • Dijkstra, Mark; Ferrara, Andrea; Mesinger, Andrei
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1007

A multiphysics and multiscale software environment for modeling astrophysical systems
journal, May 2009


Fragmentation of star-forming clouds enriched with the first dust
journal, July 2006


Rapidly Accreting Supergiant Protostars: Embryos of Supermassive Black Holes?
journal, August 2012

  • Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 756, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/1/93

Spin, Accretion, and the Cosmological Growth of Supermassive Black Holes
journal, February 2005

  • Shapiro, Stuart L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 620, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/427065

Stellar Collisions and the Interior Structure of Blue Stragglers
journal, April 2002

  • Lombardi, Jr., James C.; Warren, Jessica S.; Rasio, Frederic A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 568, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/339060

The Role of Gas Fragmentation During the Formation of Supermassive Black Holes
journal, November 2019

  • Suazo, Matías; Prieto, Joaquín; Escala, Andrés
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 885, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab45eb

Formation of the First Nuclear Clusters and Massive Black Holes at high Redshift
journal, March 2009


BRIDGE: A Direct-Tree Hybrid $N$-Body Algorithm for Fully Self-Consistent Simulations of Star Clusters and Their Parent Galaxies
journal, December 2007

  • Fujii, Michiko; Iwasawa, Masaki; Funato, Yoko
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 59, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/59.6.1095

The Formation of the Primitive star sdss J102915+172927: Effect of the dust mass and the Grain-Size Distribution
journal, November 2016


Collisions in primordial star clusters: Formation pathway for intermediate mass black holes
journal, June 2018


Resolving the Formation of Protogalaxies. II. Central Gravitational Collapse
journal, August 2008

  • Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 682, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/588209

An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5
journal, December 2017

  • Bañados, Eduardo; Venemans, Bram P.; Mazzucchelli, Chiara
  • Nature, Vol. 553, Issue 7689
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature25180

Massive black hole factories: Supermassive and quasi-star formation in primordial halos
journal, October 2013


Mixing in massive stellar mergers
journal, January 2008

  • Gaburov, E.; Lombardi, J. C.; Portegies Zwart, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 383, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2007.00399.x

The critical radiation intensity for direct collapse black hole formation: dependence on the radiation spectral shape
journal, September 2014

  • Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Akio K.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 445, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1778

Revised rate coefficients for H2 and H− destruction by realistic stellar spectra
journal, November 2014

  • Agarwal, Bhaskar; Khochfar, Sadegh
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1973

The role of stellar collisions for the formation of massive stars: Role of collisions for massive star formation
journal, March 2011


How realistic UV spectra and X-rays suppress the abundance of direct collapse black holes
journal, December 2014

  • Latif, M. A.; Bovino, S.; Grassi, T.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2244

Evolution of stellar collision products in open clusters: II. A grid of low-mass collisions
journal, July 2008