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Title: Degenerate doping in B-Ga 2O 3 Single Crystals through Hf-doping

Abstract

n-type conductivity of β-Ga 2O 3 grown from the melt is typically achieved using Sn and Si. In this paper, we experimentally and computationally investigate Hf doping of β-Ga 2O 3 single crystals using UV–vis-NIR absorption and Hall effect measurements and hybrid functional calculations. Unintentionally-doped and Hf-doped samples with a nominal concentration of 0.5at% were grown from the melt using vertical gradient freeze and Czochralski method in mixed Ar + O 2 atmosphere. We demonstrate Hf dopants, predicted to incorporate on the octahedral GaII site as a shallow donor, achieve degenerate doping in β-Ga 2O 3 with a measured electron concentration ~2 × 10 19 cm -3, mobility 80–65 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and resistivity down to 5 mΩ cm in our samples. The concentration of Hf was measured to be 1.3 × 10 19 atoms cm -3 using glow discharge mass spectroscopy on doped samples, confirming Hf to be the cause of n-type conductivity (electron concentration ~2 × 10 19 cm -3).

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [1]
  1. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1601954
Report Number(s):
[LLNL-JRNL-793748]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0268-1242; 993525]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC52-07NA27344]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Semiconductor Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 4]; Journal ID: ISSN 0268-1242
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Saleh, Muad, Varley, Joel B., Jesenovec, Jani, Bhattacharyya, Arkka, Krishnamoorthy, Sriram, Swain, Santosh, and Lynn, Kelvin. Degenerate doping in B-Ga2O3 Single Crystals through Hf-doping. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6641/ab75a6.
Saleh, Muad, Varley, Joel B., Jesenovec, Jani, Bhattacharyya, Arkka, Krishnamoorthy, Sriram, Swain, Santosh, & Lynn, Kelvin. Degenerate doping in B-Ga2O3 Single Crystals through Hf-doping. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6641/ab75a6.
Saleh, Muad, Varley, Joel B., Jesenovec, Jani, Bhattacharyya, Arkka, Krishnamoorthy, Sriram, Swain, Santosh, and Lynn, Kelvin. Thu . "Degenerate doping in B-Ga2O3 Single Crystals through Hf-doping". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6641/ab75a6.
@article{osti_1601954,
title = {Degenerate doping in B-Ga2O3 Single Crystals through Hf-doping},
author = {Saleh, Muad and Varley, Joel B. and Jesenovec, Jani and Bhattacharyya, Arkka and Krishnamoorthy, Sriram and Swain, Santosh and Lynn, Kelvin},
abstractNote = {n-type conductivity of β-Ga2O3 grown from the melt is typically achieved using Sn and Si. In this paper, we experimentally and computationally investigate Hf doping of β-Ga2O3 single crystals using UV–vis-NIR absorption and Hall effect measurements and hybrid functional calculations. Unintentionally-doped and Hf-doped samples with a nominal concentration of 0.5at% were grown from the melt using vertical gradient freeze and Czochralski method in mixed Ar + O2 atmosphere. We demonstrate Hf dopants, predicted to incorporate on the octahedral GaII site as a shallow donor, achieve degenerate doping in β-Ga2O3 with a measured electron concentration ~2 × 1019 cm-3, mobility 80–65 cm2 V-1 s-1, and resistivity down to 5 mΩ cm in our samples. The concentration of Hf was measured to be 1.3 × 1019 atoms cm-3 using glow discharge mass spectroscopy on doped samples, confirming Hf to be the cause of n-type conductivity (electron concentration ~2 × 1019 cm-3).},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6641/ab75a6},
journal = {Semiconductor Science and Technology},
number = [4],
volume = [35],
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

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