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Title: How is quantum information localized in gravity?

Abstract

A notion of localization of information within quantum subsystems plays a key role in describing the physics of quantum systems, and in particular is a prerequisite for discussing important concepts such as entanglement and information transfer. While subsystems can be readily defined for finite quantum systems and in local quantum field theory, a corresponding definition for gravitational systems is significantly complicated by the apparent nonlocality arising due to gauge invariance, enforced by the constraints. A related question is whether "soft hair" encodes otherwise localized information, and the question of such localization also remains an important puzzle for proposals that gravity emerges from another structure such as a boundary field theory as in AdS/CFT. This paper describes different approaches to defining local subsystem structure, and shows that at least classically, perturbative gravity has localized subsystems based on a split structure, generalizing the split property of quantum field theory. This, and related arguments for QED, give simple explanations that in these theories there is localized information that is independent of fields outside a region, in particular so that there is no role for "soft hair" in encoding such information. Additional subtleties appear in quantum gravity. Finally, we argue that localized information existsmore » in perturbative quantum gravity in the presence of global symmetries, but that nonperturbative dynamics is likely tied to a modification of such structure.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); Foundational Questions Institute; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1601839
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1399804
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0011702; FQXi-RFP-1507; NSF PHY11-25915
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; quantum gravity; particles & fields; quantum information; gravitation, cosmology & astrophysics

Citation Formats

Donnelly, William, and Giddings, Steven B. How is quantum information localized in gravity?. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.086013.
Donnelly, William, & Giddings, Steven B. How is quantum information localized in gravity?. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.086013.
Donnelly, William, and Giddings, Steven B. Tue . "How is quantum information localized in gravity?". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.086013. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1601839.
@article{osti_1601839,
title = {How is quantum information localized in gravity?},
author = {Donnelly, William and Giddings, Steven B.},
abstractNote = {A notion of localization of information within quantum subsystems plays a key role in describing the physics of quantum systems, and in particular is a prerequisite for discussing important concepts such as entanglement and information transfer. While subsystems can be readily defined for finite quantum systems and in local quantum field theory, a corresponding definition for gravitational systems is significantly complicated by the apparent nonlocality arising due to gauge invariance, enforced by the constraints. A related question is whether "soft hair" encodes otherwise localized information, and the question of such localization also remains an important puzzle for proposals that gravity emerges from another structure such as a boundary field theory as in AdS/CFT. This paper describes different approaches to defining local subsystem structure, and shows that at least classically, perturbative gravity has localized subsystems based on a split structure, generalizing the split property of quantum field theory. This, and related arguments for QED, give simple explanations that in these theories there is localized information that is independent of fields outside a region, in particular so that there is no role for "soft hair" in encoding such information. Additional subtleties appear in quantum gravity. Finally, we argue that localized information exists in perturbative quantum gravity in the presence of global symmetries, but that nonperturbative dynamics is likely tied to a modification of such structure.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.086013},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 8,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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