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Title: Shape fluctuations and optical transition of He 2 * excimer tracers in superfluid He 4

Abstract

Metastable He$$_{2}^{*}$$ excimer molecules have been utilized as tracer particles of the normal component in superfluid $^4$He (He II) which can be imaged via laser-induced fluorescence. These excimer molecules form tiny bubbles in He II and can bind to quantized vortices at sufficiently low temperatures, thereby allowing for direct visualization of vortex dynamics in an inviscid superfluid. However, the $$a^{3}\Sigma^+_{u}$$${\rightarrow}$$$c^{3}\Sigma^+_{g}$$ optical absorption line, which is responsible for the fluorescence imaging of the He$$_{2}^{*}$$ molecules, is controlled by fluctuations on the bubble shape, and its exact line profile is not known at low temperatures. In this paper, we present a bubble model for evaluating the surface fluctuation eigenmodes of the excimers in He II. The line profile of the $$a^{3}\Sigma^+_{u}{\rightarrow}c^{3}\Sigma^+_{g}$$ transition is calculated at different temperatures by considering both the zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the bubble shape. We show that, as the temperature drops from 2~K to 20 mK, the peak absorption strength is enhanced by a factor of about five, accompanying a blueshift of the peak location by about 2 nm. A double-peak line profile due to the rotational levels of the molecular core can be resolved. This bubble model also allows us to evaluate the stiffness of the He$$_{2}^{*}$$ bubbles and hence their diffusion constant in He II due to scattering off thermal phonons. Our results will aid the design of future experiments on imaging quantized vortices in He II using He$$_{2}^{*}$$ tracers.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab)
  2. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); National Science Foundation (NSF); Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
OSTI Identifier:
1601426
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1601709
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0020113; DMR-1807291; DMR-1644779; EP/P025625/1
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Superfluid Helium-4; Helium molecules; quantized vortex line; flow visualization; bubble; surface fluctuations; eigenmodes; optical transition

Citation Formats

Guo, Wei, and Golov, Andrei. Shape fluctuations and optical transition of He2* excimer tracers in superfluid He4. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.101.064515.
Guo, Wei, & Golov, Andrei. Shape fluctuations and optical transition of He2* excimer tracers in superfluid He4. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.101.064515
Guo, Wei, and Golov, Andrei. Tue . "Shape fluctuations and optical transition of He2* excimer tracers in superfluid He4". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.101.064515. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1601426.
@article{osti_1601426,
title = {Shape fluctuations and optical transition of He2* excimer tracers in superfluid He4},
author = {Guo, Wei and Golov, Andrei},
abstractNote = {Metastable He$_{2}^{*}$ excimer molecules have been utilized as tracer particles of the normal component in superfluid $^4$He (He II) which can be imaged via laser-induced fluorescence. These excimer molecules form tiny bubbles in He II and can bind to quantized vortices at sufficiently low temperatures, thereby allowing for direct visualization of vortex dynamics in an inviscid superfluid. However, the $a^{3}\Sigma^+_{u}$${\rightarrow}$$c^{3}\Sigma^+_{g}$ optical absorption line, which is responsible for the fluorescence imaging of the He$_{2}^{*}$ molecules, is controlled by fluctuations on the bubble shape, and its exact line profile is not known at low temperatures. In this paper, we present a bubble model for evaluating the surface fluctuation eigenmodes of the excimers in He II. The line profile of the $a^{3}\Sigma^+_{u}{\rightarrow}c^{3}\Sigma^+_{g}$ transition is calculated at different temperatures by considering both the zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the bubble shape. We show that, as the temperature drops from 2~K to 20 mK, the peak absorption strength is enhanced by a factor of about five, accompanying a blueshift of the peak location by about 2 nm. A double-peak line profile due to the rotational levels of the molecular core can be resolved. This bubble model also allows us to evaluate the stiffness of the He$_{2}^{*}$ bubbles and hence their diffusion constant in He II due to scattering off thermal phonons. Our results will aid the design of future experiments on imaging quantized vortices in He II using He$_{2}^{*}$ tracers.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.101.064515},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 6,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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