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Title: The neuraminidase of A(H3N2) influenza viruses circulating since 2016 is antigenically distinct from the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain

Abstract

A(H3N2) virus predominated recent influenza seasons, which has resulted in the rigorous investigation of haemagglutinin, but whether neuraminidase (NA) has undergone antigenic change and contributed to the predominance of A(H3N2) virus is unknown. In this work, we show that the NA of the circulating A(H3N2) viruses has experienced significant antigenic drift since 2016 compared with the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain. This antigenic drift was mainly caused by amino acid mutations at NA residues 245, 247 (S245N/S247T; introducing an N-linked glycosylation site at residue 245) and 468. As a result, the binding of the NA of A(H3N2) virus by some human monoclonal antibodies, including those that have broad reactivity to the NA of the 1957 A(H2N2) and 1968 A(H3N2) reference pandemic viruses as well as contemporary A(H3N2) strains, was reduced or abolished. This antigenic drift also reduced NA-antibody-based protection against in vivo virus challenge. X-ray crystallography showed that the glycosylation site at residue 245 is within a conserved epitope that overlaps the NA active site, explaining why it impacts antibody binding. Our findings suggest that NA antigenic drift impacts protection against influenza virus infection, thus highlighting the importance of including NA antigenicity for consideration in the optimization of influenza vaccines.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1];  [4] more »;  [2];  [6];  [1];  [1] « less
  1. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD (United States)
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA (United States)
  3. National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, Potters Bar (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  5. Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States)
  6. Mississippi State Univ., Starkville, MS (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID); National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1599430
Grant/Contract Number:  
U19AI082724; U19AI109946; U19AI057266; R01AI116744; HSN272201400008C; HHSN272201400005C
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Microbiology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-5276
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Diseases; Microbiology; Structural biology

Citation Formats

Wan, Hongquan, Gao, Jin, Yang, Hua, Yang, Shuang, Harvey, Ruth, Chen, Yao-Qing, Zheng, Nai-Ying, Chang, Jessie, Carney, Paul J., Li, Xing, Plant, Ewan, Jiang, Lianlian, Couzens, Laura, Wang, Carol, Strohmeier, Shirin, Wu, Wells W., Shen, Rong-Fong, Krammer, Florian, Cipollo, John F., Wilson, Patrick C., Stevens, James, Wan, Xiu-Feng, Eichelberger, Maryna C., and Ye, Zhiping. The neuraminidase of A(H3N2) influenza viruses circulating since 2016 is antigenically distinct from the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0522-6.
Wan, Hongquan, Gao, Jin, Yang, Hua, Yang, Shuang, Harvey, Ruth, Chen, Yao-Qing, Zheng, Nai-Ying, Chang, Jessie, Carney, Paul J., Li, Xing, Plant, Ewan, Jiang, Lianlian, Couzens, Laura, Wang, Carol, Strohmeier, Shirin, Wu, Wells W., Shen, Rong-Fong, Krammer, Florian, Cipollo, John F., Wilson, Patrick C., Stevens, James, Wan, Xiu-Feng, Eichelberger, Maryna C., & Ye, Zhiping. The neuraminidase of A(H3N2) influenza viruses circulating since 2016 is antigenically distinct from the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0522-6
Wan, Hongquan, Gao, Jin, Yang, Hua, Yang, Shuang, Harvey, Ruth, Chen, Yao-Qing, Zheng, Nai-Ying, Chang, Jessie, Carney, Paul J., Li, Xing, Plant, Ewan, Jiang, Lianlian, Couzens, Laura, Wang, Carol, Strohmeier, Shirin, Wu, Wells W., Shen, Rong-Fong, Krammer, Florian, Cipollo, John F., Wilson, Patrick C., Stevens, James, Wan, Xiu-Feng, Eichelberger, Maryna C., and Ye, Zhiping. Mon . "The neuraminidase of A(H3N2) influenza viruses circulating since 2016 is antigenically distinct from the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0522-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1599430.
@article{osti_1599430,
title = {The neuraminidase of A(H3N2) influenza viruses circulating since 2016 is antigenically distinct from the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain},
author = {Wan, Hongquan and Gao, Jin and Yang, Hua and Yang, Shuang and Harvey, Ruth and Chen, Yao-Qing and Zheng, Nai-Ying and Chang, Jessie and Carney, Paul J. and Li, Xing and Plant, Ewan and Jiang, Lianlian and Couzens, Laura and Wang, Carol and Strohmeier, Shirin and Wu, Wells W. and Shen, Rong-Fong and Krammer, Florian and Cipollo, John F. and Wilson, Patrick C. and Stevens, James and Wan, Xiu-Feng and Eichelberger, Maryna C. and Ye, Zhiping},
abstractNote = {A(H3N2) virus predominated recent influenza seasons, which has resulted in the rigorous investigation of haemagglutinin, but whether neuraminidase (NA) has undergone antigenic change and contributed to the predominance of A(H3N2) virus is unknown. In this work, we show that the NA of the circulating A(H3N2) viruses has experienced significant antigenic drift since 2016 compared with the A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 vaccine strain. This antigenic drift was mainly caused by amino acid mutations at NA residues 245, 247 (S245N/S247T; introducing an N-linked glycosylation site at residue 245) and 468. As a result, the binding of the NA of A(H3N2) virus by some human monoclonal antibodies, including those that have broad reactivity to the NA of the 1957 A(H2N2) and 1968 A(H3N2) reference pandemic viruses as well as contemporary A(H3N2) strains, was reduced or abolished. This antigenic drift also reduced NA-antibody-based protection against in vivo virus challenge. X-ray crystallography showed that the glycosylation site at residue 245 is within a conserved epitope that overlaps the NA active site, explaining why it impacts antibody binding. Our findings suggest that NA antigenic drift impacts protection against influenza virus infection, thus highlighting the importance of including NA antigenicity for consideration in the optimization of influenza vaccines.},
doi = {10.1038/s41564-019-0522-6},
journal = {Nature Microbiology},
number = 12,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: An N-linked glycosylation site acquired at NA residue 245 of circulating A(H3N2) viruses. a, b, The presence of S245N and/or S247T mutations in the NA of seasonal A(H3N2) viruses from 1968 to 2018. Shown are the number of NA sequences analyzed by years (a) and the percentage ofmore » the indicated mutations (b). Note that only 2 NAs in 2016 and 1 in 2017 possessed 245S-247T, the percentage is too low to be discernable in panel (b). c, Western blot image of NAs with or without the NA245 glycosylation site. HK/14: A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 NA; HK-245N: mutant HK/14 NA with S245N mutation; HK-245N/247T NA: mutant HK/14 NA with S245N/S247T mutation; SGP/16: A/Singapore/INFIMH-16– 0019/2016 NA; SGP-245S: mutant SGP/16 NA with N245S mutation. d, The profile of N-linked glycosylation on wt SGP/16 NA. Analysis was performed by mass-spectrometry with A(H6N2) virus containing wt SGP/16 NA (H6N2SGP/16).« less

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