skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Large-eddy simulation study on cycle-to-cycle variation of knocking combustion in a spark-ignition engine

Abstract

The cycle-to-cycle variation in the knock intensity is commonly encountered under abnormal combustion conditions. The severity of these abnormal combustion events can vary significantly, and the efficiency of engines at high loads is limited in practice by heavy knocking phenomena. Since, a thorough analysis of such recurrent but non-cyclic phenomena via experiments alone becomes highly cumbersome, in the present work, a multi-cycle large-eddy simulation study was performed to quantitatively predict cyclic variability in the combustion process and cyclic knock intensity variability in a direct injection spark-ignition engine. To account for the turbulence-chemistry interaction effects on flame propagation, the G-equation combustion model was used. Detailed chemistry was solved outside the flame front with a toluene primary reference fuel skeletal kinetic mechanism. For both the mild knock and heavy knock conditions, the numerical results were validated against experimental measurements. Based on the simulation results, a correlation analysis was performed considering combustion phasing, peak cylinder pressure and maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. Furthermore, a detailed three-dimensional spatial analysis illustrated the evolution of auto-ignition kernel development and propagation of pressure waves during knocking combustion for three typical cycles with different knock intensities. In this process, it was found that an early occurrence of auto-ignitionmore » in the end gas was prone to high knock intensity. Although multiple auto-ignition kernels were observed in different cycles, the degree of coupling between chemical heat release and pressure waves varied, thereby leading to different maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation values.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Tianjin Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Engines
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1599164
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1703587
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 261; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; auto-ignition; cycle-to-cycle variation; engine knock; large-eddy simulation; pressure oscillation

Citation Formats

Chen, Ceyuan, Pal, Pinaki, Ameen, Muhsin, Feng, Dengquan, and Wei, Haiqiao. Large-eddy simulation study on cycle-to-cycle variation of knocking combustion in a spark-ignition engine. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114447.
Chen, Ceyuan, Pal, Pinaki, Ameen, Muhsin, Feng, Dengquan, & Wei, Haiqiao. Large-eddy simulation study on cycle-to-cycle variation of knocking combustion in a spark-ignition engine. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114447
Chen, Ceyuan, Pal, Pinaki, Ameen, Muhsin, Feng, Dengquan, and Wei, Haiqiao. Tue . "Large-eddy simulation study on cycle-to-cycle variation of knocking combustion in a spark-ignition engine". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114447. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1599164.
@article{osti_1599164,
title = {Large-eddy simulation study on cycle-to-cycle variation of knocking combustion in a spark-ignition engine},
author = {Chen, Ceyuan and Pal, Pinaki and Ameen, Muhsin and Feng, Dengquan and Wei, Haiqiao},
abstractNote = {The cycle-to-cycle variation in the knock intensity is commonly encountered under abnormal combustion conditions. The severity of these abnormal combustion events can vary significantly, and the efficiency of engines at high loads is limited in practice by heavy knocking phenomena. Since, a thorough analysis of such recurrent but non-cyclic phenomena via experiments alone becomes highly cumbersome, in the present work, a multi-cycle large-eddy simulation study was performed to quantitatively predict cyclic variability in the combustion process and cyclic knock intensity variability in a direct injection spark-ignition engine. To account for the turbulence-chemistry interaction effects on flame propagation, the G-equation combustion model was used. Detailed chemistry was solved outside the flame front with a toluene primary reference fuel skeletal kinetic mechanism. For both the mild knock and heavy knock conditions, the numerical results were validated against experimental measurements. Based on the simulation results, a correlation analysis was performed considering combustion phasing, peak cylinder pressure and maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. Furthermore, a detailed three-dimensional spatial analysis illustrated the evolution of auto-ignition kernel development and propagation of pressure waves during knocking combustion for three typical cycles with different knock intensities. In this process, it was found that an early occurrence of auto-ignition in the end gas was prone to high knock intensity. Although multiple auto-ignition kernels were observed in different cycles, the degree of coupling between chemical heat release and pressure waves varied, thereby leading to different maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation values.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114447},
journal = {Applied Energy},
number = C,
volume = 261,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Developments in internal combustion engines and implications for combustion science and future transport fuels
journal, January 2015


Future transportation fuels
journal, November 2018

  • Kalghatgi, Gautam; Levinsky, Howard; Colket, Med
  • Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 69
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pecs.2018.06.003

The engine knock analysis – An overview
journal, April 2012


Analysis of pre-ignition to super-knock: Hotspot-induced deflagration to detonation
journal, March 2015


The competing chemical and physical effects of transient fuel enrichment on heavy knock in an optical spark ignition engine
journal, October 2016


Effect of turbulent mixing on the end gas auto-ignition of n-heptane/air mixtures under IC engine-relevant conditions
journal, December 2016


Regime classification of an exothermic reaction with nonuniform initial conditions
journal, October 1980


Modes of reaction front propagation from hot spots
journal, April 2003


Computational characterization of ignition regimes in a syngas/air mixture with temperature fluctuations
journal, January 2017

  • Pal, Pinaki; Valorani, Mauro; Arias, Paul G.
  • Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 36, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2016.07.059

A Regime Diagram for Autoignition of Homogeneous Reactant Mixtures with Turbulent Velocity and Temperature Fluctuations
journal, February 2015


Characteristics of Syngas Auto-ignition at High Pressure and Low Temperature Conditions with Thermal Inhomogeneities
journal, January 2015


Numerical experiments on reaction front propagation in n-heptane/air mixture with temperature gradient
journal, January 2015


Mechanisms of strong pressure wave generation in end-gas autoignition during knocking combustion
journal, May 2015


Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature inhomogeneities at constant volume: Parametric study
journal, September 2011


A DNS study of ignition characteristics of a lean iso-octane/air mixture under HCCI and SACI conditions
journal, January 2013


Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics
conference, April 2007

  • Liang, Long; Reitz, Rolf D.; Iyer, Claudia O.
  • SAE World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-0165

Multidimensional Numerical Simulations of Knocking Combustion in a Cooperative Fuel Research Engine
journal, May 2018

  • Pal, Pinaki; Wu, Yunchao; Lu, Tianfeng
  • Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 140, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4040063

Development of a Virtual CFR Engine Model for Knocking Combustion Analysis
journal, February 2018

  • Pal, Pinaki; Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Choi, Seungmok
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.4271/2018-01-0187

Numerical Investigation of a Central Fuel Property Hypothesis Under Boosted Spark-Ignition Conditions
conference, December 2019

  • Pal, Pinaki; Kalvakala, Krishna; Wu, Yunchao
  • ASME 2019 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference
  • DOI: 10.1115/ICEF2019-7284

Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics engine knock prediction and evaluation based on detailed chemistry and detonation theory
journal, August 2017

  • Netzer, Corinna; Seidel, Lars; Pasternak, Michal
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1177/1468087417740271

Deflagrative, auto-ignitive, and detonative propagation regimes in engines
journal, January 2017


A RANS knock model to predict the statistical occurrence of engine knock
journal, April 2017


Numerical Prediction of Cyclic Variability in a Spark Ignition Engine Using a Parallel Large Eddy Simulation Approach
journal, March 2018

  • Ameen, Muhsin M.; Mirzaeian, Mohsen; Millo, Federico
  • Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 140, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4039549

LES prediction and analysis of knocking combustion in a spark ignition engine
journal, January 2015


Multi-Cycle LES Simulations of Flow and Combustion in a PFI SI 4-Valve Production Engine
conference, April 2007

  • Vermorel, O.; Richard, S.; Colin, O.
  • SAE World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-0151

Detailed chemistry-based auto-ignition model including low temperature phenomena applied to 3-D engine calculations
journal, January 2005

  • Colin, Olivier; Pires da Cruz, António; Jay, Stéphane
  • Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2004.08.058

LES analysis for auto-ignition induced abnormal combustion based on a downsized SI engine
journal, April 2017


Large-eddy simulation analysis of knock in a direct injection spark ignition engine
journal, December 2018

  • Robert, Anthony; Truffin, Karine; Iafrate, Nicolas
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 20, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1177/1468087418796323

Coupled Fluid-Solid Simulation for the Prediction of Gas-Exposed Surface Temperature Distribution in a SI Engine
conference, April 2017

  • Leguille, Matthieu; Ravet, Frederic; Le Moine, Jerome
  • WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2017-01-0669

A New Droplet Collision Algorithm
journal, October 2000

  • Schmidt, David P.; Rutland, C. J.
  • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 164, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1006/jcph.2000.6568

Assessment of flamelet versus multi-zone combustion modeling approaches for stratified-charge compression ignition engines
journal, February 2015

  • Pal, Pinaki; Keum, SeungHwan; Im, Hong G.
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 17, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1177/1468087415571006

LES Analysis on Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion Process in a DISI Engine
conference, January 2019

  • Chen, Ceyuan; Ameen, Muhsin M.; Wei, Haiqiao
  • International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2019-01-0006

Dynamic structure subgrid-scale models for large eddy simulation
journal, January 2005

  • Chumakov, Sergei G.; Rutland, Christopher J.
  • International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 47, Issue 8-9
  • DOI: 10.1002/fld.907