DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface

Abstract

It is well recognized that the atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) affects ocean productivity, atmospheric CO2 uptake, ecosystem diversity, and overall climate. Despite significant advances in measurement techniques and modeling efforts, discrepancies persist between observations and models that hinder accurate predictions of processes and their global effects. Here, we provide an assessment report on where the current state of knowledge is and where future research emphasis would have the highest impact in furthering the field of Fe atmosphere-ocean biogeochemical cycle. These results were determined through consensus reached by diverse researchers from the oceanographic and atmospheric science communities with backgrounds in laboratory and in situ measurements, modeling, and remote sensing. We discuss i) novel measurement methodologies and instrumentation that allow detection and speciation of different forms and oxidation states of Fe in deliquesced mineral aerosol, cloud/rainwater, and seawater; ii) oceanic models that treat Fe cycling with several external sources and sinks, dissolved, colloidal, particulate, inorganic, and organic ligand-complexed forms of Fe, as well as Fe in detritus and phytoplankton; and iii) atmospheric models that consider natural and anthropogenic sources of Fe, mobilization of Fe in mineral aerosols due to the dissolution of Fe-oxides and Fe-substituted aluminosilicates through proton-promoted, organic ligand-promoted, andmore » photo-reductive mechanisms. In addition, the study identifies existing challenges and disconnects (both fundamental and methodological) such as i) inconsistencies in Fe nomenclature and the definition of bioavailable Fe between oceanic and atmospheric disciplines, and ii) the lack of characterization of the processes controlling Fe speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface. Such challenges are undoubtedly caused by extremely low concentrations, short lifetime, and the myriad of physical, (photo)chemical, and biological processes affecting global biogeochemical cycling of Fe. However, we also argue that the historical division (separate treatment of Fe biogeochemistry in oceanic and atmospheric disciplines) and the classical funding structures (that often create obstacles for transdisciplinary collaboration) are also hampering the advancement of knowledge in the field. Finally, the study provides some specific ideas and guidelines for laboratory studies, field measurements, and modeling research required for improved characterization of global biogeochemical cycling of Fe in relationship with other trace elements and essential nutrients. In conclusion, the report is intended to aid scientists in their work related to Fe biogeochemistry as well as program managers at the relevant funding agencies« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [6];  [15];  [2]
  1. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
  2. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)
  3. Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada)
  4. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  5. Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)
  6. Univ. of Georgia, Savannah, GA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  8. National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)
  9. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  10. Yokohama Institute for Earth Sciences, Kanagawa (Japan)
  11. Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA (United States)
  12. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
  13. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)
  14. National Observatory of Athens, Penteli (Greece)
  15. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23), Earth System Modeling; National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1599043
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 2325188
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; OCE-1807179
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Marine Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 217; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0304-4203
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Atmosphere-ocean interaction; Atmospheric and oceanic models; Bioaccessible and bioavailable iron; Iron biogeochemistry

Citation Formats

Meskhidze, Nicholas, Völker, Christoph, Al-Abadleh, Hind A., Barbeau, Katherine, Bressac, Matthieu, Buck, Clifton, Bundy, Randelle M., Croot, Peter, Feng, Yan, Ito, Akinori, Johansen, Anne M., Landing, William M., Mao, Jingqiu, Myriokefalitakis, Stelios, Ohnemus, Daniel, Pasquier, Benoît, and Ye, Ying. Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2019.103704.
Meskhidze, Nicholas, Völker, Christoph, Al-Abadleh, Hind A., Barbeau, Katherine, Bressac, Matthieu, Buck, Clifton, Bundy, Randelle M., Croot, Peter, Feng, Yan, Ito, Akinori, Johansen, Anne M., Landing, William M., Mao, Jingqiu, Myriokefalitakis, Stelios, Ohnemus, Daniel, Pasquier, Benoît, & Ye, Ying. Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2019.103704
Meskhidze, Nicholas, Völker, Christoph, Al-Abadleh, Hind A., Barbeau, Katherine, Bressac, Matthieu, Buck, Clifton, Bundy, Randelle M., Croot, Peter, Feng, Yan, Ito, Akinori, Johansen, Anne M., Landing, William M., Mao, Jingqiu, Myriokefalitakis, Stelios, Ohnemus, Daniel, Pasquier, Benoît, and Ye, Ying. Thu . "Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2019.103704. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1599043.
@article{osti_1599043,
title = {Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface},
author = {Meskhidze, Nicholas and Völker, Christoph and Al-Abadleh, Hind A. and Barbeau, Katherine and Bressac, Matthieu and Buck, Clifton and Bundy, Randelle M. and Croot, Peter and Feng, Yan and Ito, Akinori and Johansen, Anne M. and Landing, William M. and Mao, Jingqiu and Myriokefalitakis, Stelios and Ohnemus, Daniel and Pasquier, Benoît and Ye, Ying},
abstractNote = {It is well recognized that the atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) affects ocean productivity, atmospheric CO2 uptake, ecosystem diversity, and overall climate. Despite significant advances in measurement techniques and modeling efforts, discrepancies persist between observations and models that hinder accurate predictions of processes and their global effects. Here, we provide an assessment report on where the current state of knowledge is and where future research emphasis would have the highest impact in furthering the field of Fe atmosphere-ocean biogeochemical cycle. These results were determined through consensus reached by diverse researchers from the oceanographic and atmospheric science communities with backgrounds in laboratory and in situ measurements, modeling, and remote sensing. We discuss i) novel measurement methodologies and instrumentation that allow detection and speciation of different forms and oxidation states of Fe in deliquesced mineral aerosol, cloud/rainwater, and seawater; ii) oceanic models that treat Fe cycling with several external sources and sinks, dissolved, colloidal, particulate, inorganic, and organic ligand-complexed forms of Fe, as well as Fe in detritus and phytoplankton; and iii) atmospheric models that consider natural and anthropogenic sources of Fe, mobilization of Fe in mineral aerosols due to the dissolution of Fe-oxides and Fe-substituted aluminosilicates through proton-promoted, organic ligand-promoted, and photo-reductive mechanisms. In addition, the study identifies existing challenges and disconnects (both fundamental and methodological) such as i) inconsistencies in Fe nomenclature and the definition of bioavailable Fe between oceanic and atmospheric disciplines, and ii) the lack of characterization of the processes controlling Fe speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface. Such challenges are undoubtedly caused by extremely low concentrations, short lifetime, and the myriad of physical, (photo)chemical, and biological processes affecting global biogeochemical cycling of Fe. However, we also argue that the historical division (separate treatment of Fe biogeochemistry in oceanic and atmospheric disciplines) and the classical funding structures (that often create obstacles for transdisciplinary collaboration) are also hampering the advancement of knowledge in the field. Finally, the study provides some specific ideas and guidelines for laboratory studies, field measurements, and modeling research required for improved characterization of global biogeochemical cycling of Fe in relationship with other trace elements and essential nutrients. In conclusion, the report is intended to aid scientists in their work related to Fe biogeochemistry as well as program managers at the relevant funding agencies},
doi = {10.1016/j.marchem.2019.103704},
journal = {Marine Chemistry},
number = C,
volume = 217,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 38 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Suggested operational definitions of Fe to be used in deliquesced aerosol solution, cloud/rainwater, and seawater

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Dissolution of aerosol-derived iron in seawater: Leach solution chemistry, aerosol type, and colloidal iron fraction
journal, June 2010


Paleodust variability since the Last Glacial Maximum and implications for iron inputs to the ocean: PALEODUST VARIABILITY AND IRON
journal, April 2016

  • Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Murphy, L. N.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067911

The sea surface microlayer as a source of viral and bacterial enrichment in marine aerosols
journal, May 2005

  • Aller, Josephine Y.; Kuznetsova, Marina R.; Jahns, Christopher J.
  • Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 36, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.10.012

Visible spectroscopy of aerosol particles collected on filters: iron-oxide minerals
journal, January 2002


PISCES-v2: an ocean biogeochemical model for carbon and ecosystem studies
journal, January 2015

  • Aumont, O.; Ethé, C.; Tagliabue, A.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-2465-2015

Influence of Ocean Acidification on the Organic Complexation of Iron and Copper in Northwest European Shelf Seas; a Combined Observational and Model Study
journal, April 2016

  • Avendaño, Lizeth; Gledhill, Martha; Achterberg, Eric P.
  • Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 3
  • DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00058

Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater
journal, June 2010


Trends in the solubility of iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphorus in aerosol collected over the Atlantic Ocean
journal, January 2006


Trace element and isotope deposition across the air–sea interface: progress and research needs
journal, November 2016

  • Baker, A. R.; Landing, W. M.; Bucciarelli, E.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 374, Issue 2081
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2016.0190

Soluble ferrous iron (Fe (II)) enrichment in airborne dust
journal, September 2016

  • Bhattachan, Abinash; Reche, Isabel; D'Odorico, Paolo
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025025

Dissolution of atmospheric iron in seawater
journal, January 2004


Determination of sub-nanomolar levels of iron in seawater using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection
journal, April 1998


The fate of added iron during a mesoscale fertilisation experiment in the Southern Ocean
journal, January 2001

  • Bowie, Andrew R.; Maldonado, Maria T.; Frew, Russell D.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 48, Issue 11-12
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0645(01)00015-7

The biogeochemical cycle of iron in the ocean
journal, September 2010

  • Boyd, P. W.; Ellwood, M. J.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo964

Mesoscale Iron Enrichment Experiments 1993-2005: Synthesis and Future Directions
journal, February 2007


Post-depositional processes: What really happens to new atmospheric iron in the ocean's surface?
journal, August 2013

  • Bressac, Matthieu; Guieu, Cécile
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 27, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20076

A mesocosm experiment coupled with optical measurements to assess the fate and sinking of atmospheric particles in clear oligotrophic waters
journal, December 2011


Quantification of the lithogenic carbon pump following a simulated dust-deposition event in large mesocosms
journal, January 2014


Surface ocean-lower atmosphere study: Scientific synthesis and contribution to Earth system science
journal, December 2015


Aerosol iron and aluminum solubility in the northwest Pacific Ocean: Results from the 2002 IOC cruise: AEROSOL FE AND AL SOLUBILITY
journal, April 2006

  • Buck, Clifton S.; Landing, William M.; Resing, Joseph A.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GC000977

Pacific Ocean aerosols: Deposition and solubility of iron, aluminum, and other trace elements
journal, December 2013


An Intercomparison of Dissolved Iron Speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) Site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A
journal, December 2016

  • Buck, Kristen N.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.
  • Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 3
  • DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00262

Iron-binding ligands and humic substances in the San Francisco Bay estuary and estuarine-influenced shelf regions of coastal California
journal, July 2015


Iron organic speciation determination in rainwater using cathodic stripping voltammetry
journal, July 2012


Bioavailability of natural colloid-bound iron to marine plankton: Influences of colloidal size and aging
journal, November 2001


Comparison between pure-water- and seawater-soluble nutrient concentrations of aerosols from the Gulf of Aqaba
journal, September 2006


Effects of African dust deposition on phytoplankton in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean off Barbados: Dust Deposition and Phytoplankton Growth
journal, May 2016

  • Chien, Chia-Te; Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 30, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005334

The origin of water soluble particulate iron in the Asian atmospheric outflow: ORIGIN OF ASIAN WATER-SOLUBLE IRON
journal, April 2005

  • Chuang, P. Y.; Duvall, R. M.; Shafer, M. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004GL021946

Modeling the mineralogy of atmospheric dust sources
journal, September 1999

  • Claquin, T.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 104, Issue D18
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JD900416

Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean
journal, July 2014


Tracing and constraining anthropogenic aerosol iron fluxes to the North Atlantic Ocean using iron isotopes
journal, June 2019

  • Conway, Tim M.; Hamilton, Douglas S.; Shelley, Rachel U.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10457-w

The Importance of Kinetics and Redox in the Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron in the Surface Ocean
journal, January 2012


Regeneration of Fe(II) during EIFeX and SOFeX
journal, October 2008

  • Croot, P. L.; Bluhm, K.; Schlosser, C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL035063

Sea surface microlayers: A unified physicochemical and biological perspective of the air–ocean interface
journal, February 2013


Low colloidal associations of aluminium and titanium in surface waters of the tropical Atlantic
journal, November 2012


The Cytochrome P450 Superfamily: Biochemistry, Evolution and Drug Metabolism in Humans
journal, December 2002


Chemical characterization of iron in atmospheric aerosols
journal, October 1992

  • Dedik, A. N.; Hoffmann, P.; Ensling, J.
  • Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics, Vol. 26, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1016/0960-1686(92)90106-U

Transition Metals in Atmospheric Liquid Phases:  Sources, Reactivity, and Sensitive Parameters
journal, September 2005

  • Deguillaume, Laurent; Leriche, Maud; Desboeufs, Karine
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 105, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr040649c

Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean
journal, December 1991


Enrichment of Heavy Metals and Organic Compounds in the Surface Microlayer of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island
journal, April 1972


The atmospheric input of trace species to the world ocean
journal, September 1991

  • Duce, R. A.; Liss, P. S.; Merrill, J. T.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/91GB01778

Global calcite cycling constrained by sediment preservation controls: CALCITE CYCLING FROM SEDIMENT CONTROLS
journal, September 2012

  • Dunne, John P.; Hales, Burke; Toggweiler, J. R.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003935

GFDL’s ESM2 Global Coupled Climate–Carbon Earth System Models. Part II: Carbon System Formulation and Baseline Simulation Characteristics
journal, April 2013


Deep sediment resuspension and thick nepheloid layer generation by open-ocean convection
journal, March 2017

  • Durrieu de Madron, X.; Ramondenc, S.; Berline, L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 122, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JC012062

Trace elements in the sea surface microlayer: rapid responses to changes in aerosol deposition
journal, January 2017

  • Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.
  • Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, Vol. 5
  • DOI: 10.1525/elementa.237

Determination of subnanomolar levels of iron(II) and total dissolved iron in seawater by flow injection and analysis with chemiluminescence detection
journal, May 1991

  • Elrod, Virginia A.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Coale, Kenneth H.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 63, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac00009a011

Aeolian input of bioavailable iron to the ocean
journal, January 2006

  • Fan, Song-Miao; Moxim, Walter J.; Levy, Hiram
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024852

The impact of changing surface ocean conditions on the dissolution of aerosol iron
journal, November 2014

  • Fishwick, Matthew P.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Lohan, Maeve C.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 28, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004921

Partitioning of dissolved iron and iron isotopes into soluble and colloidal phases along the GA03 GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect
journal, June 2015

  • Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Carrasco, Gonzalo G.; Wu, Jingfeng
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 116
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.11.014

Daily to decadal variability of size-fractionated iron and iron-binding ligands at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA
journal, December 2015

  • Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Hayes, Christopher T.; Al-Subiai, Sherain N.
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 171
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.08.012

Iron supply and demand in the upper ocean
journal, March 2000

  • Fung, Inez Y.; Meyn, Stephanie K.; Tegen, Ina
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GB900059

The physical and chemical characteristics of marine primary organic aerosol: a review
journal, January 2013


Does dust from Patagonia reach the sub-Antarctic Atlantic Ocean?
journal, January 2007

  • Gassó, Santiago; Stein, Ariel F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027693

Stable cluster formation in aqueous suspensions of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles
journal, September 2007

  • Gilbert, Benjamin; Lu, Guoping; Kim, Christopher S.
  • Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 313, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2007.04.038

The organic complexation of iron in the marine environment: a review
journal, January 2012


Determination of complexation of iron(III) with natural organic complexing ligands in seawater using cathodic stripping voltammetry
journal, September 1994


Measurement of the redox speciation of iron in seawater by catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry
journal, August 1995


Known and Unexplored Organic Constituents in the Earth's Atmosphere
journal, March 2007

  • Goldstein, Allen H.; Galbally, Ian E.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 41, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/es072476p

The behaviour of iron and other trace elements during the IronEx-I and PlumEx experiments in the Equatorial Pacific
journal, June 1998

  • Gordon, R. M.; Johnson, K. S.; Coale, K. H.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 45, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0645(98)00012-5

Biomass burning as a source of dissolved iron to the open ocean?: DISSOLVED IRON FROM BIOMASS BURNING
journal, October 2005

  • Guieu, Cécile; Bonnet, Sophie; Wagener, Thibaut
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GL022962

Introduction to project DUNE, a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem
journal, January 2014


Exopolysaccharides produced by bacteria isolated from the pelagic Southern Ocean — Role in Fe binding, chemical reactivity, and bioavailability
journal, January 2011


Saccharides enhance iron bioavailability to Southern Ocean phytoplankton
journal, December 2010

  • Hassler, C. S.; Schoemann, V.; Nichols, C. M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010963108

Replacement Times of a Spectrum of Elements in the North Atlantic Based on Thorium Supply
journal, September 2018

  • Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Cheng, Hai
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 32, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2017GB005839

Dissolved and particulate amino acids and carbohydrates in the sea surface microlayer
journal, September 1985


Speciation of iron in atmospheric aerosol samples
journal, March 1996


lron transport in marine phytoplankton: Kinetics of cellular and medium coordination reactions
journal, July 1990


Iron-binding ligands and their role in the ocean biogeochemistry of iron
journal, January 2007

  • Hunter, Keith A.; Boyd, Philip W.
  • Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1071/EN07012

Enhanced Iron Solubility at Low pH in Global Aerosols
journal, May 2018


Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the ocean
journal, January 2016


Response of acid mobilization of iron-containing mineral dust to improvement of air quality projected in the future
journal, January 2014


Pyrogenic iron: The missing link to high iron solubility in aerosols
journal, May 2019

  • Ito, Akinori; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Kanakidou, Maria
  • Science Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7671

The inputs of dust derived elements to the Sargasso Sea; a synthesis
journal, December 1999


Global Iron Connections Between Desert Dust, Ocean Biogeochemistry, and Climate
journal, April 2005


Photoreductive dissolution of ferrihydrite by methanesulfinic acid: Evidence of a direct link between dimethylsulfide and iron-bioavailability
journal, January 2006

  • Johansen, Anne M.; Key, Jennifer M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026010

Iron supply and demand in the upper ocean: Is extraterrestrial dust a significant source of bioavailable iron?
journal, March 2001


What controls dissolved iron concentrations in the world ocean?
journal, July 1997


Developing Standards for Dissolved Iron in Seawater
journal, January 2007

  • Johnson, Kenneth S.; Boyle, Edward; Bruland, Kenneth
  • Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007EO110003

Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean
journal, January 2011

  • Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-2487-2011

Mineralogy as a critical factor of dust iron solubility: MINERALOGY AND DUST IRON SOLUBILITY
journal, April 2008

  • Journet, Emilie; Desboeufs, Karine V.; Caquineau, Sandrine
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031589

A new data set of soil mineralogy for dust-cycle modeling
journal, January 2014

  • Journet, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Harrison, S. P.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-3801-2014

A novel tracer technique to quantify the atmospheric flux of trace elements to remote ocean regions
journal, February 2015

  • Kadko, David; Landing, William M.; Shelley, Rachel U.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JC010314

Aerosols in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients
journal, May 2018

  • Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Tsigaridis, Kostas
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aabcdb

Bio-availability of iron derived from subarctic first-year sea ice
journal, November 2016


Iron speciation in coastal rainwater: concentration and deposition to seawater
journal, February 2001


Organic Complexation of Fe(II) and Its Impact on the Redox Cycling of Iron in Rain
journal, January 2005

  • Kieber, R. J.; Skrabal, S. A.; Smith, B. J.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/es040439h

A scaling theory for the size distribution of emitted dust aerosols suggests climate models underestimate the size of the global dust cycle
journal, December 2010


Impacts of atmospheric nutrient inputs on marine biogeochemistry
journal, January 2010

  • Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Mahowald, Natalie
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JG001115

Evidence for geochemical control of iron by humic substances in seawater
journal, March 2009


Effect of humic substances on the iron speciation in natural waters by CLE/CSV
journal, December 2011


The contrasting biogeochemistry of iron and manganese in the Pacific Ocean
journal, January 1987


Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean
journal, January 2010


The solubility of iron in seawater
journal, January 2002


Constraints from 210 Pb and 7 Be on wet deposition and transport in a global three-dimensional chemical tracer model driven by assimilated meteorological fields
journal, June 2001

  • Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 106, Issue D11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900839

Determination of iron and copper in seawater at pH 1.7 with a new commercially available chelating resin, NTA Superflow
journal, February 2005

  • Lohan, Maeve C.; Aguilar-Islas, Ana M.; Franks, Robert P.
  • Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 530, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2004.09.005

Combustion iron distribution and deposition: COMBUSTION IRON
journal, February 2008

  • Luo, Chao; Mahowald, N.; Bond, T.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GB002964

Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater
journal, January 2015

  • Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Chien, Chia-Te; Post, Anton F.
  • Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 5
  • DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00794

Soil abrasion and eolian dust production: Implications for iron partitioning and solubility
journal, December 2006

  • Mackie, D. S.; Peat, J. M.; McTainsh, G. H.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 7, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GC001404

Atmospheric Iron Deposition: Global Distribution, Variability, and Human Perturbations
journal, January 2009


Aerosol trace metal leaching and impacts on marine microorganisms
journal, July 2018

  • Mahowald, Natalie M.; Hamilton, Douglas S.; Mackey, Katherine R. M.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04970-7

REDUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF ORGANICALLY BOUND IRON BY THALASSIOSIRA OCEANICA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)
journal, April 2001


Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols
journal, January 2013


Soluble Fe in Aerosols Sustained by Gaseous HO2 Uptake
journal, February 2017

  • Mao, Jingqiu; Fan, Songmiao; Horowitz, Larry W.
  • Environmental Science & Technology Letters, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00017

Northeast Pacific iron distributions in relation to phytoplankton productivity
journal, February 1988

  • Martin, John H.; Michael Gordon, R.
  • Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 35, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0198-0149(88)90035-0

Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer
journal, April 2018


Hydroxamate Siderophores: Occurrence and Importance in the Atlantic Ocean
journal, December 2008

  • Mawji, Edward; Gledhill, Martha; Milton, James A.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/es801884r

Carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin controls high-affinity iron uptake in diatoms
journal, March 2018

  • McQuaid, Jeffrey B.; Kustka, Adam B.; Oborník, Miroslav
  • Nature, Vol. 555, Issue 7697
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature25982

On the use of dissolved aluminum in surface waters to estimate dust deposition to the ocean
journal, March 2000

  • Measures, C. I.; Vink, S.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GB001188

Determination of iron in seawater by flow injection analysis using in-line preconcentration and spectrophotometric detection
journal, August 1995


Iron mobilization in mineral dust: Can anthropogenic SO 2 emissions affect ocean productivity?
journal, January 2003


Dust and pollution: A recipe for enhanced ocean fertilization?
journal, January 2005


Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans
journal, September 2016


Potential effect of atmospheric dissolved organic carbon on the iron solubility in seawater
journal, August 2017


Humic substances may control dissolved iron distributions in the global ocean: Implications from numerical simulations: LIGAND DISTRIBUTION IN THE GLOBAL OCEAN
journal, May 2013

  • Misumi, Kazuhiro; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. Keith
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20039

Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional model: GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM-BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL
journal, December 2004

  • Moore, J. Keith; Doney, Scott C.; Lindsay, Keith
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004GB002220

Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation
journal, March 2013

  • Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1765

The role of unchelated Fe in the iron nutrition of phytoplankton
journal, January 2008


A Novel Protein, Ubiquitous in Marine Phytoplankton, Concentrates Iron at the Cell Surface and Facilitates Uptake
journal, February 2015


Methods for the sampling and analysis of marine aerosols: results from the 2008 GEOTRACES aerosol intercalibration experiment: GEOTRACES 2008 Aerosol Intercalibration
journal, February 2013

  • Morton, Peter L.; Landing, William M.; Hsu, Shih-Chieh
  • Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4319/lom.2013.11.62

Reviews and syntheses: the GESAMP atmospheric iron deposition model intercomparison study
journal, January 2018

  • Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Ito, Akinori; Kanakidou, Maria
  • Biogeosciences, Vol. 15, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.5194/bg-15-6659-2018

Atmospheric processing of iron carried by mineral dust
journal, January 2013

  • Nickovic, S.; Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-9169-2013

Automated determination of iron in seawater by chelating resin concentration and chemiluminescence detection
journal, June 1993

  • Obata, Hajime.; Karatani, Hajime.; Nakayama, Eiichiro.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 65, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac00059a007

Cycling of lithogenic marine particles in the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect
journal, June 2015

  • Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Lam, Phoebe J.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 116
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.11.019

Impacts of atmospheric nutrient deposition on marine productivity: Roles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron: ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION TO OCEANS
journal, June 2011

  • Okin, Gregory S.; Baker, Alex R.; Tegen, Ina
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 25, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003858

Modeling the global ocean iron cycle: MODELING THE GLOBAL IRON CYCLE
journal, January 2004

  • Parekh, Payal; Follows, Michael J.; Boyle, Edward
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 18, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GB002061

Decoupling of iron and phosphate in the global ocean: DECOUPLING OF IRON AND PHOSPHATE
journal, May 2005

  • Parekh, P.; Follows, M. J.; Boyle, E. A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 19, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004GB002280

Effect of atmospheric organic complexation on iron-bearing dust solubility
journal, January 2013


Chemical characterisation of iron in dust and biomass burning aerosols during AMMA-SOP0/DABEX: implication for iron solubility
journal, January 2010

  • Paris, R.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Formenti, P.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-4273-2010

Variability of dust iron solubility in atmospheric waters: Investigation of the role of oxalate organic complexation
journal, November 2011


Inverse-model estimates of the ocean's coupled phosphorus, silicon, and iron cycles
journal, January 2017


Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols – Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations
journal, January 2015

  • Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-11629-2015

Trace metal enrichment in the sea-surface microlayer
journal, September 1972

  • Piotrowicz, Stephen R.; Ray, Barbara J.; Hoffman, Gerald L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 77, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1029/JC077i027p05243

Dense shelf water cascades and sedimentary furrow formation in the Cap de Creus Canyon, northwestern Mediterranean Sea
journal, August 2008


The Iron Biogeochemical Cycle Past and Present
journal, January 2012


The role of trace metals in photosynthetic electron transport in O2-evolving organisms
journal, January 1999

  • Raven, John A.; Evans, Michael C. W.; Korb, Rebecca E.
  • Photosynthesis Research, Vol. 60, Issue 2/3, p. 111-150
  • DOI: 10.1023/A:1006282714942

Availability of well-defined iron colloids to the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii
journal, May 1990


The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean
journal, June 2014


Predicting iron speciation in coastal waters from the kinetics of sunlight-mediated iron redox cycling
journal, December 2003

  • Rose, Andrew L.; Waite, T. David
  • Aquatic Sciences - Research Across Boundaries, Vol. 65, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00027-003-0676-3

Dust- and mineral-iron utilization by the marine dinitrogen-fixer Trichodesmium
journal, June 2011

  • Rubin, Maxim; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Shaked, Yeala
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 4, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1181

Oxidation of Nanomolar Levels of Fe(II) with Oxygen in Natural Waters
journal, April 2005

  • Santana-Casiano, J. Magdalena; González-Dávila, Melchor; Millero, Frank J.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/es049748y

Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing
journal, January 2015

  • Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-537-2015

Dissolved Al distribution, particulate Al fluxes and coupling to atmospheric Al and dust deposition in the Arabian Sea
journal, July 2005

  • Schüßler, Uwe; Balzer, Wolfgang; Deeken, Aloys
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 52, Issue 14-15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.06.005

Solubility and dissolution of iron oxides
journal, January 1991


Impact of anthropogenic combustion emissions on the fractional solubility of aerosol iron: Evidence from the Sargasso Sea: FRACTIONAL SOLUBILITY OF AEROSOL IRON
journal, October 2007

  • Sedwick, Peter N.; Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Church, Thomas M.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GC001586

A zonal picture of the water column distribution of dissolved iron(II) during the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect cruise (GEOTRACES GA03)
journal, June 2015

  • Sedwick, P. N.; Sohst, B. M.; Ussher, S. J.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 116
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.11.004

Iron-copper interactions in iron-limited phytoplankton in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean
journal, October 2015

  • Semeniuk, David M.; Taylor, Rebecca L.; Bundy, Randelle M.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 61, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/lno.10210

Peer Reviewed: Defining Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility of Contaminated Soil and Sediment is Complicated
journal, June 2004

  • Semple, Kirk. T.; Doick, Kieron J.; Jones, Kevin C.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/es040548w

Disassembling Iron Availability to Phytoplankton
journal, January 2012


Formation of Iron Nanoparticles and Increase in Iron Reactivity in Mineral Dust during Simulated Cloud Processing
journal, September 2009

  • Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D.; Bonneville, Steeve
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 43, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/es901294g

Iron dissolution kinetics of mineral dust at low pH during simulated atmospheric processing
journal, January 2011

  • Shi, Z.; Bonneville, S.; Krom, M. D.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-995-2011

Minor effect of physical size sorting on iron solubility of transported mineral dust
journal, January 2011

  • Shi, Z. B.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Carslaw, K. S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-8459-2011

Influence of anthropogenic combustion emissions on the deposition of soluble aerosol iron to the ocean: Empirical estimates for island sites in the North Atlantic
journal, July 2009

  • Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 73, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.04.029

Fractional solubility of aerosol iron: Synthesis of a global-scale data set
journal, July 2012

  • Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 89
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.04.022

Formation of Light Absorbing Soluble Secondary Organics and Insoluble Polymeric Particles from the Dark Reaction of Catechol and Guaiacol with Fe(III)
journal, June 2015

  • Slikboer, Samantha; Grandy, Lindsay; Blair, Sandra L.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01032

Factors controlling the solubility of aerosol trace metals in the atmosphere and on mixing into seawater
journal, January 1996

  • Spokes, Lucinda J.; Jickells, Tim D.
  • Aquatic Geochemistry, Vol. 1, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00702739

Impact of anthropogenic sources on aerosol iron solubility over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea
journal, December 2011


The significance of particle size of long-range transported mineral dust
journal, October 2014

  • Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Prins, Maarten A.
  • Past Global Changes Magazine, Vol. 22, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.22498/pages.22.2.70

Towards accounting for dissolved iron speciation in global ocean models
journal, January 2011


How well do global ocean biogeochemistry models simulate dissolved iron distributions?: GLOBAL IRON MODELS
journal, February 2016

  • Tagliabue, Alessandro; Aumont, Olivier; DeAth, Ros
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005289

The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry
journal, March 2017

  • Tagliabue, Alessandro; Bowie, Andrew R.; Boyd, Philip W.
  • Nature, Vol. 543, Issue 7643
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature21058

The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea
journal, January 2010


Spatial gradients in trace metal concentrations in the surface microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea
journal, December 2014

  • Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Arrieta, Jesús M.; Duarte, Carlos M.
  • Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 1
  • DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00079

Efficient Formation of Light-Absorbing Polymeric Nanoparticles from the Reaction of Soluble Fe(III) with C4 and C6 Dicarboxylic Acids
journal, August 2017

  • Tran, Ashley; Williams, Geoffrey; Younus, Shagufta
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 51, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b01826

The fate of metals in the oceans
journal, August 1977


The mysterious long-range transport of giant mineral dust particles
journal, December 2018

  • van der Does, Michèlle; Knippertz, Peter; Zschenderlein, Philipp
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2768

Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises
journal, October 2013


Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids.
journal, March 1947

  • Verwey, E. J. W.
  • The Journal of Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Vol. 51, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/j150453a001

Siderophores in Cloud Waters and Potential Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry: Production by Microorganisms Isolated at the Puy de Dôme Station
journal, August 2016

  • Vinatier, Virginie; Wirgot, Nolwenn; Joly, Muriel
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 50, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02335

Iron reduction by photoproduced superoxide in seawater
journal, August 1995


Modeling organic iron-binding ligands in a three-dimensional biogeochemical ocean model
journal, July 2015


Chemically and Geographically Distinct Solid-Phase Iron Pools in the Southern Ocean
journal, November 2012

  • von der Heyden, B. P.; Roychoudhury, A. N.; Mtshali, T. N.
  • Science, Vol. 338, Issue 6111
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1227504

Chemistry of Marine Ligands and Siderophores
journal, January 2009


Global dust teleconnections: aerosol iron solubility and stable isotope composition
journal, January 2007

  • Waeles, Matthieu; Baker, Alex R.; Jickells, Tim
  • Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1071/EN07013

Dust iron dissolution in seawater: Results from a one-year time-series in the Mediterranean Sea
journal, January 2008

  • Wagener, Thibaut; Pulido-Villena, Elvira; Guieu, Cécile
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL034581

Effects of dust deposition on iron cycle in the surface Mediterranean Sea: results from a mesocosm seeding experiment
journal, January 2010


Sources, transport and deposition of iron in the global atmosphere
journal, January 2015

  • Wang, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Boucher, O.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-6247-2015

230Th and 234Th as coupled tracers of particle cycling in the ocean: A maximum likelihood approach
journal, May 2016

  • Wang, Wei-Lei; Armstrong, Robert A.; Cochran, J. Kirk
  • Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 111
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2016.02.003

Modeling the speciation and biogeochemistry of iron at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site
journal, March 2005

  • Weber, L.; Völker, C.; Schartau, M.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004GB002340

Iron-limited growth of cyanobacteria: Multiple siderophore production is a common response
journal, December 1994


Rainwater as a source of Fe(II)-stabilizing ligands to seawater
journal, July 2008

  • Willey, Joan D.; Kieber, Robert J.; Seaton, Pamela J.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 53, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2008.53.4.1678

Dissolution of aerosol iron in the surface waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans as determined by a semicontinuous flow-through reactor method
journal, November 2007

  • Wu, Jingfeng; Rember, Robert; Cahill, Cathy
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002851

Sea surface microlayer in a changing ocean – A perspective
journal, January 2017

  • Wurl, Oliver; Ekau, Werner; Landing, William M.
  • Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, Vol. 5
  • DOI: 10.1525/elementa.228

Impacts of dust deposition on dissolved trace metal concentrations (Mn, Al and Fe) during a mesocosm experiment
journal, January 2013


Critical evaluation of a seaFAST system for the analysis of trace metals in marine samples
journal, May 2019


A model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry at the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory site
journal, October 2009


Dust deposition: iron source or sink? A case study
journal, August 2011


Studies on the sea surface microlayer
journal, August 2003


Photoreduction of iron(III) in marine mineral aerosol solutions
journal, May 1993

  • Zhu, Xiaorong; Prospero, Joseph M.; Savoie, Dennis L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 98, Issue D5
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JD00202

Link between iron and sulphur cycles suggested by detection of Fe(n) in remote marine aerosols
journal, February 1992

  • Zhuang, Guoshun; Yi, Zhen; Duce, Robert A.
  • Nature, Vol. 355, Issue 6360
  • DOI: 10.1038/355537a0

Works referencing / citing this record:

On mineral dust aerosol hygroscopicity
journal, November 2020


Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.