DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Advanced X-ray Scattering and Spectroscopy Characterization of an Antisoiling Coating for Solar Module Glass

Abstract

When dust and other particulates accumulate on the surface of solar modules, the power output of these soiled modules is significantly reduced. To combat this issue, antisoiling coatings can be placed on the top glass surface of solar modules. While there exists some understanding of how antisoiling coatings reduce soiling and reflection losses, approaches to characterize the durability and stability of the chemistry and morphology of antisoiling PV glass module coatings and how they evolve in response to soiling interactions are currently underdeveloped. Here we present the use of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a methodology for studying the morphology and chemistry of pristine and soiled antisoiling coatings. Here, this work demonstrates the effectiveness of SAXS in observing coating morphology despite the presence of soil surface layers—a capability which sets it apart as a strong characterization tool for antisoiling coatings on PV glass. XPS and XAS are used as complementary techniques to characterize the evolution of coating surface chemistry before and after soiling. XAS is shown to detect subtle chemical changes in the coating surface that cannot be detected by XPS.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. WattGlass, Inc., Fayetteville, AR (United States)
  3. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office; National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1598421
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; ECCS-1542152
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Applied Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2574-0962
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; antisoiling; antireflection; photovoltaic; glass coating; SAXS; XAS; NEXAFS

Citation Formats

Moffitt, Stephanie L., Fleming, Robert A., Thompson, Corey S., Titus, Charles J., Kim, Eungi, Leu, Leon, Toney, Michael F., and Schelhas, Laura T. Advanced X-ray Scattering and Spectroscopy Characterization of an Antisoiling Coating for Solar Module Glass. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/acsaem.9b01316.
Moffitt, Stephanie L., Fleming, Robert A., Thompson, Corey S., Titus, Charles J., Kim, Eungi, Leu, Leon, Toney, Michael F., & Schelhas, Laura T. Advanced X-ray Scattering and Spectroscopy Characterization of an Antisoiling Coating for Solar Module Glass. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.9b01316
Moffitt, Stephanie L., Fleming, Robert A., Thompson, Corey S., Titus, Charles J., Kim, Eungi, Leu, Leon, Toney, Michael F., and Schelhas, Laura T. Mon . "Advanced X-ray Scattering and Spectroscopy Characterization of an Antisoiling Coating for Solar Module Glass". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.9b01316. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1598421.
@article{osti_1598421,
title = {Advanced X-ray Scattering and Spectroscopy Characterization of an Antisoiling Coating for Solar Module Glass},
author = {Moffitt, Stephanie L. and Fleming, Robert A. and Thompson, Corey S. and Titus, Charles J. and Kim, Eungi and Leu, Leon and Toney, Michael F. and Schelhas, Laura T.},
abstractNote = {When dust and other particulates accumulate on the surface of solar modules, the power output of these soiled modules is significantly reduced. To combat this issue, antisoiling coatings can be placed on the top glass surface of solar modules. While there exists some understanding of how antisoiling coatings reduce soiling and reflection losses, approaches to characterize the durability and stability of the chemistry and morphology of antisoiling PV glass module coatings and how they evolve in response to soiling interactions are currently underdeveloped. Here we present the use of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a methodology for studying the morphology and chemistry of pristine and soiled antisoiling coatings. Here, this work demonstrates the effectiveness of SAXS in observing coating morphology despite the presence of soil surface layers—a capability which sets it apart as a strong characterization tool for antisoiling coatings on PV glass. XPS and XAS are used as complementary techniques to characterize the evolution of coating surface chemistry before and after soiling. XAS is shown to detect subtle chemical changes in the coating surface that cannot be detected by XPS.},
doi = {10.1021/acsaem.9b01316},
journal = {ACS Applied Energy Materials},
number = 11,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: illustration of the two soiling/ cleaning protocols used to test the WattGlass coating. ( 1) First soiling is performed in the chamber with Arizona Test Dust (A2). A dust cloud is created by flowing compressed air through a mesh-covered funnel filled with dust. The dust is allowed tomore » settle onto the samples on the floor of the chamber for 1 min. ( 2) Afterward, the deposited soil is partially removed, either by blowing gently flowing air over the sample (2a) or by flowing Milli-Qpurified water over the sample (2b). (3) Samples are then set aside for measurement or dried and placed back in the soiling chamber for more cycles (up to 5).« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Power loss due to soiling on solar panel: A review
journal, June 2016

  • Maghami, Mohammad Reza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 59
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.044

A comprehensive review of the impact of dust on the use of solar energy: History, investigations, results, literature, and mitigation approaches
journal, June 2013

  • Sarver, Travis; Al-Qaraghuli, Ali; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 22
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.065

Large Reductions in Solar Energy Production Due to Dust and Particulate Air Pollution
journal, June 2017

  • Bergin, Mike H.; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Dixit, Deepa
  • Environmental Science & Technology Letters, Vol. 4, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00197

Optimized Cleaning Cost and Schedule Based on Observed Soiling Conditions for Photovoltaic Plants in Central Saudi Arabia
journal, May 2016


Hydrophobic–Hydrophilic Surfaces Exhibiting Dropwise Condensation for Anti-Soiling Applications
journal, January 2019


Ultrahigh-transparency, ultrahigh-haze nanograss glass with fluid-induced switchable haze
journal, January 2017

  • Haghanifar, Sajad; Gao, Tongchuan; Rodriguez De Vecchis, Rafael T.
  • Optica, Vol. 4, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.4.001522

Adhesion mechanisms on solar glass: Effects of relative humidity, surface roughness, and particle shape and size
journal, December 2017


Anti-soiling effect of porous SiO2 coatings prepared by sol–gel processing
journal, May 2011

  • Glaubitt, Walther; Löbmann, Peer
  • Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 59, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10971-011-2489-5

A light-scattering study of the scattering matrix elements of Arizona Road Dust
journal, September 2015

  • Wang, Yuli; Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Sorensen, Christopher M.
  • Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 163
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.05.002

Self-cleaning, high transmission, near unity haze OTS/silica nanostructured glass
journal, January 2018

  • Haghanifar, Sajad; Lu, Ping; Kayes, Md Imrul
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 6, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8TC02513D

Transparent self-cleaning and antifogging silica nanoparticle films
journal, August 2013


Self-cleaning surfaces using anisotropic ratchet conveyors
conference, June 2017

  • Sun, Di; Bohringer, Karl F.
  • 2017 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS)
  • DOI: 10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2017.7994412

Suppression of dust adhesion on a concentrator photovoltaic module using an anti-soiling photocatalytic coating
journal, November 2013


Anti-reflective and anti-soiling properties of a KleanBoost™, a superhydrophobic nano-textured coating for solar glass
conference, June 2017

  • Nayshevsky, Illya; Xu, QianFeng; Barahman, Gil
  • 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366777

Review of Self-Cleaning Method for Solar Cell Array
journal, January 2011


Self-cleaning coatings
journal, January 2005

  • Parkin, Ivan P.; Palgrave, Robert G.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 15, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/b412803f

Estimation of the porosity and refractive index of sol–gel silica films using high resolution electron microscopy
journal, November 2014


Indoor Soil Deposition Chamber: Evaluating Effectiveness of Antisoiling Coatings
journal, January 2019


Nika : software for two-dimensional data reduction
journal, March 2012


Effects of chemical etching with sulfuric acid on glass surface
journal, March 2000

  • Jang, H. K.; Chung, Y. D.; Whangbo, S. W.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.582200

ATHENA , ARTEMIS , HEPHAESTUS : data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT
journal, June 2005


Total-electron-yield current measurements for near-surface extended x-ray-absorption fine structure
journal, February 1988


Structural study of SiO2TiO2 sol—gel films by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies
journal, September 1997

  • Orignac, Xavier; Cristina Vasconcelos, H.; Almeida, Rui M.
  • Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 217, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3093(97)00155-5

Photoelectron determination of the attenuation of low-energy electrons in Al 2 O 3
journal, April 1974


Relative escape depth of Auger and photoelectrons from a solid surface
journal, January 1973


Nanostructure as seen by the SAXS
journal, October 2005


Altered layer as sensitive initial chemical state indicator*
journal, March 1994

  • Dementjev, A. P.; Ivanova, O. P.; Vasilyev, L. A.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.579258

Structure of densified vitreous silica: Silicon and oxygen XANES spectra and multiple scattering calculations
journal, September 1992

  • Davoli, I.; Paris, E.; Stizza, S.
  • Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 19, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00202105

Electronic structure analysis of via x-ray absorption near-edge structure at the Si K, and O K edges
journal, September 1998


Oxygen K near-edge spectra of amorphous silicon suboxides
journal, December 1995


LOCAL STRUCTURE IN SiO 2 GLASSES BY OXYGEN K EDGE XANES
journal, December 1985

  • Marcelli, A.; Davoli, I.; Bianconi, A.
  • Le Journal de Physique Colloques, Vol. 46, Issue C8
  • DOI: 10.1051/jphyscol:1985813

X-ray absorption near edge structure of quartz. Application to the structure of densified silica
journal, June 1992

  • Lagarde, P.; Flank, A. M.; Tourillon, G.
  • Journal de Physique I, Vol. 2, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1051/jp1:1992113

Raman and XANES spectroscopy of permanently densified vitreous silica
journal, August 2004


An O K-edge XANES study of glasses and crystals in the CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (CAS) system
journal, February 2009


Interaction of ZDDP with Borated Dispersant Using XANES and XPS
journal, January 2004


Characterization of iron oxides by x-ray absorption at the oxygen K edgeusing a full multiple-scattering approach
journal, January 1997


Oxygen K x-ray-absorption near-edge structure of alkaline-earth-metal and 3 d -transition-metal oxides
journal, December 1987

  • Nakai, Shun-ichi; Mitsuishi, Tsutomu; Sugawara, Hidenao
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 36, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.36.9241

Change in the chemical state and thermal stability of HfO2 by the incorporation of Al2O3
journal, January 2004

  • Cho, M. -H.; Chang, H. S.; Cho, Y. J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1633976

Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.