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Title: Generation and acceleration of electron bunches from a plasma photocathode

Abstract

Plasma waves generated in the wake of intense, relativistic laser or particle beams can accelerate electron bunches to gigaelectronvolt energies in centimetre-scale distances. This allows the realization of compact accelerators with emerging applications ranging from modern light sources such as the free-electron laser to energy frontier lepton colliders. In a plasma wakefield accelerator, such multi-gigavolt-per-metre wakefields can accelerate witness electron bunches that are either externally injected or captured from the background plasma. Here in this work, we demonstrate optically triggered injection and acceleration of electron bunches, generated in a multi-component hydrogen and helium plasma employing a spatially aligned and synchronized laser pulse. This ‘plasma photocathode’ decouples injection from wake excitation by liberating tunnel-ionized helium electrons directly inside the plasma cavity, where these cold electrons are then rapidly boosted to relativistic velocities. The injection regime can be accessed via optical density down-ramp injection and is an important step towards the generation of electron beams with unprecedented low transverse emittance, high current and 6D-brightness. This experimental path opens numerous prospects for transformative plasma wakefield accelerator applications based on ultrahigh-brightness beams.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5];  [2]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [8]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [9];  [10];  [10] more »;  [11];  [12]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [14];  [8];  [8];  [6]; ORCiD logo [5] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China)
  2. Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)
  3. Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sci-Tech Daresbury, Cheshire (United Kingdom). Cockcroft Inst.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  5. Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sci-Tech Daresbury, Cheshire (United Kingdom). Cockcroft Inst.
  6. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  8. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  9. Univ. of Oslo (Norway)
  10. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  11. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, CA (United States)
  12. RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, CA (United States)
  13. RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)
  14. Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
H2020 EuPRAXIA; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); Research Council of Norway; National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1598416
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; SC0009914; SC0009533; 653782; EP/N028694/1; 230450; SC0011617; PHY-1734319; AC02-05CH11231; SC0013855; PHY 1734281
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Experimental particle physics; Plasma-based accelerators

Citation Formats

Deng, A., Karger, O. S., Heinemann, T., Knetsch, A., Scherkl, P., Manahan, G. G., Beaton, A., Ullmann, D., Wittig, G., Habib, A. F., Xi, Y., Litos, M. D., O’Shea, B. D., Gessner, S., Clarke, C. I., Green, S. Z., Lindstrøm, C. A., Adli, E., Zgadzaj, R., Downer, M. C., Andonian, G., Murokh, A., Bruhwiler, D. L., Cary, J. R., Hogan, M. J., Yakimenko, V., Rosenzweig, J. B., and Hidding, B. Generation and acceleration of electron bunches from a plasma photocathode. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0610-9.
Deng, A., Karger, O. S., Heinemann, T., Knetsch, A., Scherkl, P., Manahan, G. G., Beaton, A., Ullmann, D., Wittig, G., Habib, A. F., Xi, Y., Litos, M. D., O’Shea, B. D., Gessner, S., Clarke, C. I., Green, S. Z., Lindstrøm, C. A., Adli, E., Zgadzaj, R., Downer, M. C., Andonian, G., Murokh, A., Bruhwiler, D. L., Cary, J. R., Hogan, M. J., Yakimenko, V., Rosenzweig, J. B., & Hidding, B. Generation and acceleration of electron bunches from a plasma photocathode. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0610-9
Deng, A., Karger, O. S., Heinemann, T., Knetsch, A., Scherkl, P., Manahan, G. G., Beaton, A., Ullmann, D., Wittig, G., Habib, A. F., Xi, Y., Litos, M. D., O’Shea, B. D., Gessner, S., Clarke, C. I., Green, S. Z., Lindstrøm, C. A., Adli, E., Zgadzaj, R., Downer, M. C., Andonian, G., Murokh, A., Bruhwiler, D. L., Cary, J. R., Hogan, M. J., Yakimenko, V., Rosenzweig, J. B., and Hidding, B. Mon . "Generation and acceleration of electron bunches from a plasma photocathode". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0610-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1598416.
@article{osti_1598416,
title = {Generation and acceleration of electron bunches from a plasma photocathode},
author = {Deng, A. and Karger, O. S. and Heinemann, T. and Knetsch, A. and Scherkl, P. and Manahan, G. G. and Beaton, A. and Ullmann, D. and Wittig, G. and Habib, A. F. and Xi, Y. and Litos, M. D. and O’Shea, B. D. and Gessner, S. and Clarke, C. I. and Green, S. Z. and Lindstrøm, C. A. and Adli, E. and Zgadzaj, R. and Downer, M. C. and Andonian, G. and Murokh, A. and Bruhwiler, D. L. and Cary, J. R. and Hogan, M. J. and Yakimenko, V. and Rosenzweig, J. B. and Hidding, B.},
abstractNote = {Plasma waves generated in the wake of intense, relativistic laser or particle beams can accelerate electron bunches to gigaelectronvolt energies in centimetre-scale distances. This allows the realization of compact accelerators with emerging applications ranging from modern light sources such as the free-electron laser to energy frontier lepton colliders. In a plasma wakefield accelerator, such multi-gigavolt-per-metre wakefields can accelerate witness electron bunches that are either externally injected or captured from the background plasma. Here in this work, we demonstrate optically triggered injection and acceleration of electron bunches, generated in a multi-component hydrogen and helium plasma employing a spatially aligned and synchronized laser pulse. This ‘plasma photocathode’ decouples injection from wake excitation by liberating tunnel-ionized helium electrons directly inside the plasma cavity, where these cold electrons are then rapidly boosted to relativistic velocities. The injection regime can be accessed via optical density down-ramp injection and is an important step towards the generation of electron beams with unprecedented low transverse emittance, high current and 6D-brightness. This experimental path opens numerous prospects for transformative plasma wakefield accelerator applications based on ultrahigh-brightness beams.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-019-0610-9},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 11,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Simulation of two injection modes into a beam-driven plasma wave. a-c, Sequential snapshots of the plasma torch injection process from three-dimensional PIC simulations, where y denotes the transverse dimension and ζ = z-ct the co-moving coordinate parallel to the driver beam propagation direction z, and c and tmore » denoting the speed of light and time, respectively. The driver electron beam (blue dots) interacts with pre-ionized hydrogen plasma channel electrons (colour-coded energy) and a perpendicular plasma filament of ionized hydrogen and helium. This plasma density spike, generated by a 5 mJ laser pulse, distorts the nonlinear plasma 'blowout' shape and triggers injection of electrons from outside the blowout, as indicated by selected trajectories shown as green lines. d-f, Sequential snapshots of the plasma photocathode injection process. A 0.5 mJ laser pulse (red) releases helium electrons via tunnelling ionization inside the hydrogen-based plasma wave. Selected electron trajectories (green lines) show that the injected electrons originate from inside the plasma blowout. Snapshots c and fare taken when the respective witness bunches are fully formed, respectively. ζ=0 is defined by the centre of the electron driver beam in the co-moving frame. Only particles within the central slice, -2.5 μm < x < 2.5 μm, are shown.« less

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.