skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Plasma impurities observed by a pulse height analysis diagnostic during the divertor campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

Abstract

The paper reports on the optimization process of the soft X-ray pulse height analyzer installed on the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. It is a 3-channel system that records X-ray spectra in the range from 0.6 to 19.6 keV. X-ray spectra, with a temporal and spatial resolution of 100 ms and 2.5 cm (depending on selected slit sizes), respectively, are line integrated along a line-of-sight that crosses near to the plasma center. In the second W7-X operation phase with a carbon test divertor unit, we report light impurities, e.g., carbon and oxygen, were observed as well as mid- to high-Z elements, e.g., sulfur, chlorine, chromium, manganese, iron, and nickel. In addition, X-ray lines from several tracer elements have been observed after the laser blow-off injection of different impurities, e.g., silicon, titanium, and iron, and during discharges with prefill or a gas puff of neon or argon. These measurements were achieved by optimizing light absorber-foil selection, which defines the detected energy range, and remotely controlled pinhole size, which defines photon flux. The identification of X-ray lines was confirmed by other spectroscopic diagnostics, e.g., by the High-Efficiency XUV Overview Spectrometer, HEXOS, and high-resolution X-ray imaging spectrometer, HR-XIS.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [5];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2] more »; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2] « less
  1. Inst. of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)
  2. Max Planck Inst. for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)
  3. Forschungszentrum, Juelich (Germany)
  4. Lab. Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)
  5. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; EUROfusion Consortium; Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education
Contributing Org.:
W7-X Team
OSTI Identifier:
1598037
Grant/Contract Number:  
633053
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Kubkowska, M., Czarnecka, A., Fornal, T., Gruca, M., Jabłoński, S., Krawczyk, N., Ryć, L., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., Geiger, B., Grulke, O., Langenberg, A., Marchuk, O., McCarthy, K. J., Neuner, U., Nicolai, D., Pablant, N., Schweer, B., Thomsen, H., Wegner, Th., Drews, P., Hollfeld, K.-P., Killer, C., Krings, Th., Offermanns, G., Satheeswaran, G., and Kunkel, F. Plasma impurities observed by a pulse height analysis diagnostic during the divertor campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5038850.
Kubkowska, M., Czarnecka, A., Fornal, T., Gruca, M., Jabłoński, S., Krawczyk, N., Ryć, L., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., Geiger, B., Grulke, O., Langenberg, A., Marchuk, O., McCarthy, K. J., Neuner, U., Nicolai, D., Pablant, N., Schweer, B., Thomsen, H., Wegner, Th., Drews, P., Hollfeld, K.-P., Killer, C., Krings, Th., Offermanns, G., Satheeswaran, G., & Kunkel, F. Plasma impurities observed by a pulse height analysis diagnostic during the divertor campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5038850
Kubkowska, M., Czarnecka, A., Fornal, T., Gruca, M., Jabłoński, S., Krawczyk, N., Ryć, L., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., Geiger, B., Grulke, O., Langenberg, A., Marchuk, O., McCarthy, K. J., Neuner, U., Nicolai, D., Pablant, N., Schweer, B., Thomsen, H., Wegner, Th., Drews, P., Hollfeld, K.-P., Killer, C., Krings, Th., Offermanns, G., Satheeswaran, G., and Kunkel, F. Thu . "Plasma impurities observed by a pulse height analysis diagnostic during the divertor campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5038850. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1598037.
@article{osti_1598037,
title = {Plasma impurities observed by a pulse height analysis diagnostic during the divertor campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator},
author = {Kubkowska, M. and Czarnecka, A. and Fornal, T. and Gruca, M. and Jabłoński, S. and Krawczyk, N. and Ryć, L. and Burhenn, R. and Buttenschön, B. and Geiger, B. and Grulke, O. and Langenberg, A. and Marchuk, O. and McCarthy, K. J. and Neuner, U. and Nicolai, D. and Pablant, N. and Schweer, B. and Thomsen, H. and Wegner, Th. and Drews, P. and Hollfeld, K.-P. and Killer, C. and Krings, Th. and Offermanns, G. and Satheeswaran, G. and Kunkel, F.},
abstractNote = {The paper reports on the optimization process of the soft X-ray pulse height analyzer installed on the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. It is a 3-channel system that records X-ray spectra in the range from 0.6 to 19.6 keV. X-ray spectra, with a temporal and spatial resolution of 100 ms and 2.5 cm (depending on selected slit sizes), respectively, are line integrated along a line-of-sight that crosses near to the plasma center. In the second W7-X operation phase with a carbon test divertor unit, we report light impurities, e.g., carbon and oxygen, were observed as well as mid- to high-Z elements, e.g., sulfur, chlorine, chromium, manganese, iron, and nickel. In addition, X-ray lines from several tracer elements have been observed after the laser blow-off injection of different impurities, e.g., silicon, titanium, and iron, and during discharges with prefill or a gas puff of neon or argon. These measurements were achieved by optimizing light absorber-foil selection, which defines the detected energy range, and remotely controlled pinhole size, which defines photon flux. The identification of X-ray lines was confirmed by other spectroscopic diagnostics, e.g., by the High-Efficiency XUV Overview Spectrometer, HEXOS, and high-resolution X-ray imaging spectrometer, HR-XIS.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5038850},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 10,
volume = 89,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

First Results from the Soft X-ray Pulse Height Analysis System on Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator
journal, November 2018


Study of impurity behaviour for first magnetic configuration changes in W7-X plasmas by means of PHA spectra
journal, November 2018


Laboratory tests of the Pulse Height Analysis system for Wendelstein 7-X
journal, October 2015


Startup impurity diagnostics in Wendelstein 7-X stellarator in the first operational phase
journal, October 2015


New Soft x-ray PHA Diagnostic in the HT-7 Tokamak
journal, June 2005


Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor prototype x‐ray pulse‐height analyzer diagnostic
journal, May 1985

  • Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Diesso, M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 56, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1138517

Continuum x-ray emission from the Alcator A tokamak
journal, March 1982


Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
journal, November 2013


First result from x-ray pulse height analyzer with radial scanning system for LHD
journal, January 2001

  • Muto, Sadatsugu; Morita, Shigeru
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 72, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1324746

Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited)
journal, October 2016

  • Krychowiak, M.; Adnan, A.; Alonso, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4964376

Electron temperature estimation using the Pulse Height Analysis system at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator
journal, November 2018


Plans for the first plasma operation of Wendelstein 7-X
journal, November 2015


Forward Modeling of X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers Within the Minerva Bayesian Analysis Framework
journal, April 2016

  • Langenberg, A.; Svensson, J.; Thomsen, H.
  • Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 69, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.13182/fst15-181

Design, capabilities, and first results of the new laser blow-off system on Wendelstein 7-X
journal, July 2018

  • Wegner, Th.; Geiger, B.; Kunkel, F.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 89, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5037543

JET x‐ray pulse‐height analysis system
journal, May 1988

  • Pasini, D.; Gill, R. D.; Holm, J.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 59, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1139812

Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator
journal, July 2017


Multichannel measurement system for extended SXR plasma diagnostics based on novel radiation-hard electronics
journal, November 2017


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    XUV diagnostic to monitor H-like emission from B, C, N, and O for the W7-X stellarator
    journal, September 2019

    • Fornal, Tomasz; Książek, Ireneusz; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 90, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5099448

    First demonstration of radiative power exhaust with impurity seeding in the island divertor at Wendelstein 7-X
    journal, August 2019