skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on December 23, 2020

Title: Structure and Performance of GFDL’s CM4.0 Climate Model

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [1];  [3] more »;  [1];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [6] « less
  1. NOAA GFDL
  2. UCAR GFDL
  3. Princeton University
  4. USGS
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  6. SAIC
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1597580
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-780618
Journal ID: 975104; 975104
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: vol. 11; Journal Issue: na
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Environmental sciences

Citation Formats

Held, I M, Guo, H, Adcroft, A, Dunne, J P, Horowitz, L W, Krasting, J, Shevliakova, E, Winton, M, Zhao, M, Bushuk, M, Wittenberg, A T, Wyman, B, Xiang, B, Zhang, R, Anderson, W, Balaji, V, Donner, L, Dunne, K, Durachta, J, Gauthier, P, Ginoux, P, Golaz, J C, Griffies, S M, Hallberg, R, Harris, L, Harrison, M, Hurlin, W, John, J, Lin, P, Lin, S J, Malyshev, S, Menzel, R, Ming, Y, Naik, V, Paynter, D, Paulot, F, Ramaswamy, V, Reichl, B, Robinson, T, Rosati, A, Seman, C, Silvers, L, Underwood, S, and Zadeh, N. Structure and Performance of GFDL’s CM4.0 Climate Model. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2019MS001829.
Held, I M, Guo, H, Adcroft, A, Dunne, J P, Horowitz, L W, Krasting, J, Shevliakova, E, Winton, M, Zhao, M, Bushuk, M, Wittenberg, A T, Wyman, B, Xiang, B, Zhang, R, Anderson, W, Balaji, V, Donner, L, Dunne, K, Durachta, J, Gauthier, P, Ginoux, P, Golaz, J C, Griffies, S M, Hallberg, R, Harris, L, Harrison, M, Hurlin, W, John, J, Lin, P, Lin, S J, Malyshev, S, Menzel, R, Ming, Y, Naik, V, Paynter, D, Paulot, F, Ramaswamy, V, Reichl, B, Robinson, T, Rosati, A, Seman, C, Silvers, L, Underwood, S, & Zadeh, N. Structure and Performance of GFDL’s CM4.0 Climate Model. United States. doi:10.1029/2019MS001829.
Held, I M, Guo, H, Adcroft, A, Dunne, J P, Horowitz, L W, Krasting, J, Shevliakova, E, Winton, M, Zhao, M, Bushuk, M, Wittenberg, A T, Wyman, B, Xiang, B, Zhang, R, Anderson, W, Balaji, V, Donner, L, Dunne, K, Durachta, J, Gauthier, P, Ginoux, P, Golaz, J C, Griffies, S M, Hallberg, R, Harris, L, Harrison, M, Hurlin, W, John, J, Lin, P, Lin, S J, Malyshev, S, Menzel, R, Ming, Y, Naik, V, Paynter, D, Paulot, F, Ramaswamy, V, Reichl, B, Robinson, T, Rosati, A, Seman, C, Silvers, L, Underwood, S, and Zadeh, N. Mon . "Structure and Performance of GFDL’s CM4.0 Climate Model". United States. doi:10.1029/2019MS001829.
@article{osti_1597580,
title = {Structure and Performance of GFDL’s CM4.0 Climate Model},
author = {Held, I M and Guo, H and Adcroft, A and Dunne, J P and Horowitz, L W and Krasting, J and Shevliakova, E and Winton, M and Zhao, M and Bushuk, M and Wittenberg, A T and Wyman, B and Xiang, B and Zhang, R and Anderson, W and Balaji, V and Donner, L and Dunne, K and Durachta, J and Gauthier, P and Ginoux, P and Golaz, J C and Griffies, S M and Hallberg, R and Harris, L and Harrison, M and Hurlin, W and John, J and Lin, P and Lin, S J and Malyshev, S and Menzel, R and Ming, Y and Naik, V and Paynter, D and Paulot, F and Ramaswamy, V and Reichl, B and Robinson, T and Rosati, A and Seman, C and Silvers, L and Underwood, S and Zadeh, N},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1029/2019MS001829},
journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
number = na,
volume = vol. 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 23, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)
journal, December 2003


Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis system ORAS4
journal, December 2012

  • Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mogensen, Kristian; Weaver, Anthony T.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 139, Issue 674
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2063

Mean-state dependence of ENSO atmospheric feedbacks in climate models
journal, July 2017


Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 1955–1998
journal, January 2005


Response of the ITCZ to Northern Hemisphere cooling: ITCZ RESPONSE TO N. HEMISPHERE COOLING
journal, January 2006

  • Broccoli, Anthony J.; Dahl, Kristina A.; Stouffer, Ronald J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024546

Change in future climate due to Antarctic meltwater
journal, November 2018


Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies
journal, June 2019


Spatial and temporal structure of Tropical Pacific interannual variability in 20th century coupled simulations
journal, January 2006


Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1
null, January 1996

  • Cavalieri, Donald
  • NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center
  • DOI: 10.5067/8GQ8LZQVL0VL

Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models
journal, January 1990

  • Cess, R. D.; Potter, G. L.; Blanchet, J. P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue D10
  • DOI: 10.1029/JD095iD10p16601

Cloud feedback in atmospheric general circulation models: An update
journal, May 1996

  • Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Ingram, W. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 101, Issue D8
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JD00822

North Atlantic Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Impact of the Vertical Coordinate Choice, Reference Pressure, and Thermobaricity
journal, December 2003


Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone
journal, July 2005


Temporal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5 N
journal, August 2007


Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows
journal, January 2010

  • Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue C11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006243

North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states
journal, January 2014


Sources of multi-decadal variability in Arctic sea ice extent
journal, July 2012


Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology
journal, January 2004

  • de Boyer Montégut, Clément
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, Issue C12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004JC002378

The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

GFDL's CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models. Part I: Formulation and Simulation Characteristics
journal, March 2006

  • Delworth, Thomas L.; Broccoli, Anthony J.; Rosati, Anthony
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3629.1

Have anthropogenic aerosols delayed a greenhouse gas-induced weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation?
journal, January 2006

  • Delworth, Thomas L.; Dixon, Keith W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024980

Simulated Climate and Climate Change in the GFDL CM2.5 High-Resolution Coupled Climate Model
journal, April 2012


Fingerprints of internal drivers of Arctic sea ice loss in observations and model simulations
journal, November 2018


The Dynamical Core, Physical Parameterizations, and Basic Simulation Characteristics of the Atmospheric Component AM3 of the GFDL Global Coupled Model CM3
journal, July 2011

  • Donner, Leo J.; Wyman, Bruce L.; Hemler, Richard S.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3955.1

Preconditioning of the Weddell Sea Polynya by the Ocean Mesoscale and Dense Water Overflows
journal, October 2017

  • Dufour, Carolina O.; Morrison, Adele K.; Griffies, Stephen M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 30, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0586.1

GFDL’s ESM2 Global Coupled Climate–Carbon Earth System Models. Part I: Physical Formulation and Baseline Simulation Characteristics
journal, October 2012


Recent Wind-Driven Variability in Atlantic Water Mass Distribution and Meridional Overturning Circulation
journal, March 2017

  • Evans, Dafydd Gwyn; Toole, John; Forget, Gael
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 47, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-16-0089.1

Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization
journal, January 2016

  • Eyring, Veronika; Bony, Sandrine; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016

Parameterization of Mixed Layer Eddies. Part I: Theory and Diagnosis
journal, June 2008

  • Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Ferrari, Raffaele; Hallberg, Robert
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 38, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JPO3792.1

A Topographic Drag Closure Built on an Analytical Base Flux
journal, July 2005

  • Garner, Stephen T.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 62, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS3496.1

Ground-Truth Model Evaluation of Subgrid Orographic Base-Flux Parameterization
journal, October 2018


Parameterizing Eddy-Induced Tracer Transports in Ocean Circulation Models
journal, April 1995


Cloud tuning in a coupled climate model: Impact on 20th century warming: CLOUD TUNING AND 20TH CENTURY WARMING
journal, March 2013

  • Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Horowitz, Larry W.; Levy, Hiram
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50232

A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity
journal, January 2004


Impacts on Ocean Heat from Transient Mesoscale Eddies in a Hierarchy of Climate Models
journal, February 2015

  • Griffies, Stephen M.; Winton, Michael; Anderson, Whit G.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00353.1

The GFDL CM3 Coupled Climate Model: Characteristics of the Ocean and Sea Ice Simulations
journal, July 2011

  • Griffies, Stephen M.; Winton, Michael; Donner, Leo J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3964.1

High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6
journal, January 2016

  • Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-4185-2016

Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 4 (ERSST.v4). Part I: Upgrades and Intercomparisons
journal, February 2015


Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature, Version 5 (ERSSTv5): Upgrades, Validations, and Intercomparisons
journal, October 2017


Energy budget-based backscatter in an eddy permitting primitive equation model
journal, October 2015


Climate versus emission drivers of methane lifetime against loss by tropospheric OH from 1860–2100
journal, January 2012


Continuous, Array-Based Estimates of Atlantic Ocean Heat Transport at 26.5°N
journal, May 2011

  • Johns, W. E.; Baringer, M. O.; Beal, L. M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3997.1

The Response of the ITCZ to Extratropical Thermal Forcing: Idealized Slab-Ocean Experiments with a GCM
journal, July 2008

  • Kang, Sarah M.; Held, Isaac M.; Frierson, Dargan M. W.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI2146.1

Sea ice motion from low-resolution satellite sensors: An alternative method and its validation in the Arctic
journal, January 2010

  • Lavergne, T.; Eastwood, S.; Teffah, Z.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue C10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JC005958

Improvements in the GISTEMP Uncertainty Model
journal, June 2019

  • Lenssen, Nathan J. L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Hansen, James E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018JD029522

On the discrepancy between observed and CMIP5 multi-model simulated Barents Sea winter sea ice decline
journal, April 2017

  • Li, Dawei; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14991

Comparison of Mechanisms for Low-Frequency Variability of Summer Arctic Sea Ice in Three Coupled Models
journal, February 2018


Toward Optimal Closure of the Earth's Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Budget
journal, February 2009

  • Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2637.1

Impact of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) on Arctic Surface Air Temperature and Sea Ice Variability
journal, December 2011

  • Mahajan, Salil; Zhang, Rong; Delworth, Thomas L.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI4002.1

Open-ocean convection: Observations, theory, and models
journal, February 1999

  • Marshall, John; Schott, Friedrich
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 37, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/98RG02739

Multi-centennial variability controlled by Southern Ocean convection in the Kiel Climate Model
journal, November 2012


Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice
journal, January 2012


Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N
journal, January 2015


Mechanisms of aerosol-forced AMOC variability in a state of the art climate model: HISTORICALLY STRENGTHENING AMOC
journal, April 2013

  • Menary, Matthew B.; Roberts, Christopher D.; Palmer, Matthew D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 118, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20178

An Enhanced Model of Land Water and Energy for Global Hydrologic and Earth-System Studies
journal, October 2014

  • Milly, P. C. D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-0162.1

Simulation and Prediction of Category 4 and 5 Hurricanes in the High-Resolution GFDL HiFLOR Coupled Climate Model
journal, December 2015

  • Murakami, Hiroyuki; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Underwood, Seth
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0216.1

Explicit Generation of Orthogonal Grids for Ocean Models
journal, July 1996


The Extreme 2015/16 El Niño, in the Context of Historical Climate Variability and Change
journal, January 2018

  • Newman, Matthew; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Cheng, Linyin
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 99, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0116.1

Finite-volume transport on various cubed-sphere grids
journal, November 2007


Understanding the Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue Time-Mean Heat Budget. Part I: Diagnostic Framework
journal, December 2018

  • Ray, Sulagna; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Griffies, Stephen M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 31, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0152.1

Understanding the Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue Time-Mean Heat Budget. Part II: Evaluation of the GFDL-FLOR Coupled GCM
journal, December 2018

  • Ray, Sulagna; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Griffies, Stephen M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 31, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0153.1

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century
journal, January 2003


An Improved In Situ and Satellite SST Analysis for Climate
journal, July 2002


Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice freeboard and thickness on radar-waveform interpretation
journal, January 2014


Enhanced warming of the N orthwest A tlantic O cean under climate change
journal, January 2016

  • Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 121, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JC011346

Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: Importance of the secondary vegetation sink: CARBON CYCLING AND LAND USE IN LM3V
journal, June 2009

  • Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.; Malyshev, Sergey
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 23, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GB003176

Assessment of sea ice simulations in the CMIP5 models
journal, January 2015


The North Atlantic Ocean Is in a State of Reduced Overturning
journal, February 2018

  • Smeed, D. A.; Josey, S. A.; Beaulieu, C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076350

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future
journal, July 2011


An ocean-atmosphere climate simulation with an embedded cloud resolving model: A GLOBAL CLIMATE SIMULATION
journal, January 2010

  • Stan, Cristiana; Khairoutdinov, Marat; DeMott, Charlotte A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL040822

Time Scales of Climate Response
journal, January 2004


Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3 and observations: ARCTIC SEA ICE EXTENT FROM CMIP5
journal, August 2012

  • Stroeve, Julienne C.; Kattsov, Vladimir; Barrett, Andrew
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052676

Influence of internal variability on Arctic sea-ice trends
journal, January 2015

  • Swart, Neil C.; Fyfe, John C.; Hawkins, Ed
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2483

Improvements of simulated Western North Atlantic current system and impacts on the AMOC
journal, April 2014


An Initial Assessment of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent in the CMIP5 Models
journal, March 2013


On the Seasonal Forecasting of Regional Tropical Cyclone Activity
journal, November 2014


Representations of the Nordic Seas overflows and their large scale climate impact in coupled models
journal, February 2015


MIROC-ESM 2010: model description and basic results of CMIP5-20c3m experiments
journal, January 2011

  • Watanabe, S.; Hajima, T.; Sudo, K.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-845-2011

Are historical records sufficient to constrain ENSO simulations?
journal, January 2009


ENSO Modulation: Is It Decadally Predictable?
journal, April 2014

  • Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Rosati, Anthony; Delworth, Thomas L.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00577.1

GFDL's CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models. Part III: Tropical Pacific Climate and ENSO
journal, March 2006

  • Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Rosati, Anthony; Lau, Ngar-Cheung
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3631.1

Improved Simulations of Tropical Pacific Annual-Mean Climate in the GFDL FLOR and HiFLOR Coupled GCMs
journal, December 2018

  • Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Delworth, Thomas L.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001372

Underestimated AMOC Variability and Implications for AMV and Predictability in CMIP Models
journal, May 2018

  • Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077378

Sensitivity of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability to Parameterized Nordic Sea Overflows in CCSM4
journal, March 2012


Mechanisms for low-frequency variability of summer Arctic sea ice extent
journal, March 2015


Diagnosis of Decadal Predictability of Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature in the GFDL CM2.1 Model
journal, August 2017


Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Ocean Circulation to an abrupt change in the Nordic Sea overflow in a high resolution global coupled climate model
journal, January 2011

  • Zhang, Rong; Delworth, Thomas L.; Rosati, Anthony
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue C12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007240

Have Aerosols Caused the Observed Atlantic Multidecadal Variability?
journal, April 2013

  • Zhang, Rong; Delworth, Thomas L.; Sutton, Rowan
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 70, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-12-0331.1

A Review of the Role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and Associated Climate Impacts
journal, June 2019

  • Zhang, Rong; Sutton, Rowan; Danabasoglu, Gokhan
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 57, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019RG000644

The Role of Bottom Vortex Stretching on the Path of the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current and on the Northern Recirculation Gyre
journal, August 2007

  • Zhang, Rong; Vallis, Geoffrey K.
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 37, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/JPO3102.1

The GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM4.0/LM4.0: 2. Model Description, Sensitivity Studies, and Tuning Strategies
journal, March 2018

  • Zhao, M.; Golaz, J. -C.; Held, I. M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001209