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Title: Measurement of diamond nucleation rates from hydrocarbons at conditions comparable to the interiors of icy giant planets

Abstract

We present measurements of the nucleation rate into a diamond lattice in dynamically compressed polystyrene obtained in a pump-probe experiment using a high-energy laser system and in situ femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different temperature-pressure conditions that occur in planetary interiors were probed. For a single shock reaching 70 GPa and 3000 K no diamond formation was observed, while with a double shock driving polystyrene to pressures around 150 GPa and temperatures around 5000 K nucleation rates between 1029 and 1034 m–3 s–1 were recorded. These nucleation rates do not agree with predictions of the state-of-the-art theoretical models for carbon-hydrogen mixtures by many orders of magnitude. Our data suggest that there is significant diamond formation to be expected inside icy giant planets like Neptune and Uranus.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); Helmholtz Association; University of California, Center for High Energy Density Science; German Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Tech- nologie (BMBF))
OSTI Identifier:
1597545
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1604902
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0018298; AC02-76SF00515; NA002135; AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review B Journal Volume: 101 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Schuster, A. K., Hartley, N. J., Vorberger, J., Döppner, T., van Driel, T., Falcone, R. W., Fletcher, L. B., Frydrych, S., Galtier, E., Gamboa, E. J., Gericke, D. O., Glenzer, S. H., Granados, E., MacDonald, M. J., MacKinnon, A. J., McBride, E. E., Nam, I., Neumayer, P., Pak, A., Prencipe, I., Voigt, K., Saunders, A. M., Sun, P., and Kraus, D. Measurement of diamond nucleation rates from hydrocarbons at conditions comparable to the interiors of icy giant planets. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.101.054301.
Schuster, A. K., Hartley, N. J., Vorberger, J., Döppner, T., van Driel, T., Falcone, R. W., Fletcher, L. B., Frydrych, S., Galtier, E., Gamboa, E. J., Gericke, D. O., Glenzer, S. H., Granados, E., MacDonald, M. J., MacKinnon, A. J., McBride, E. E., Nam, I., Neumayer, P., Pak, A., Prencipe, I., Voigt, K., Saunders, A. M., Sun, P., & Kraus, D. Measurement of diamond nucleation rates from hydrocarbons at conditions comparable to the interiors of icy giant planets. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.101.054301.
Schuster, A. K., Hartley, N. J., Vorberger, J., Döppner, T., van Driel, T., Falcone, R. W., Fletcher, L. B., Frydrych, S., Galtier, E., Gamboa, E. J., Gericke, D. O., Glenzer, S. H., Granados, E., MacDonald, M. J., MacKinnon, A. J., McBride, E. E., Nam, I., Neumayer, P., Pak, A., Prencipe, I., Voigt, K., Saunders, A. M., Sun, P., and Kraus, D. Wed . "Measurement of diamond nucleation rates from hydrocarbons at conditions comparable to the interiors of icy giant planets". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.101.054301.
@article{osti_1597545,
title = {Measurement of diamond nucleation rates from hydrocarbons at conditions comparable to the interiors of icy giant planets},
author = {Schuster, A. K. and Hartley, N. J. and Vorberger, J. and Döppner, T. and van Driel, T. and Falcone, R. W. and Fletcher, L. B. and Frydrych, S. and Galtier, E. and Gamboa, E. J. and Gericke, D. O. and Glenzer, S. H. and Granados, E. and MacDonald, M. J. and MacKinnon, A. J. and McBride, E. E. and Nam, I. and Neumayer, P. and Pak, A. and Prencipe, I. and Voigt, K. and Saunders, A. M. and Sun, P. and Kraus, D.},
abstractNote = {We present measurements of the nucleation rate into a diamond lattice in dynamically compressed polystyrene obtained in a pump-probe experiment using a high-energy laser system and in situ femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different temperature-pressure conditions that occur in planetary interiors were probed. For a single shock reaching 70 GPa and 3000 K no diamond formation was observed, while with a double shock driving polystyrene to pressures around 150 GPa and temperatures around 5000 K nucleation rates between 1029 and 1034 m–3 s–1 were recorded. These nucleation rates do not agree with predictions of the state-of-the-art theoretical models for carbon-hydrogen mixtures by many orders of magnitude. Our data suggest that there is significant diamond formation to be expected inside icy giant planets like Neptune and Uranus.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.101.054301},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 5,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.054301

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