skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Variability in the Position of the IBEX Ribbon over Nine Years: More Observational Evidence for a Secondary ENA Source

Abstract

The ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom flux, discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in 2009, has redefined our understanding of the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM). Yet, its origin continues to be a topic of scientific debate. The ribbon is circular and traces the region where the putative LISM magnetic field (B LISM) is perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. Using nine years of IBEX-Hi observations, we investigate the ribbon circularity and location as functions of time and energy. We provide updated locations of the ribbon center at five energy passbands (centered at 0.7, 1.1, 1.7, 2.7, and 4.3 keV) in ecliptic coordinates [longitude, latitude]: [217$$_˙^°$$dg41 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg95, 44$$_˙^°$$dg36 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg93], [219$$_˙^°$$dg72 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg95, 41$$_˙^°$$dg50 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg87], [220$$_˙^°$$dg51 ± 1$$_˙^°$$dg19, 39$$_˙^°$$dg96 ± 1$$_˙^°$$dg00], [218$$_˙^°$$dg08 ± 1$$_˙^°$$dg66, 38$$_˙^°$$dg44 ± 1$$_˙^°$$dg24], and [214$$_˙^°$$dg68 ± 1$$_˙^°$$dg48, 34$$_˙^°$$dg13 ± 1$$_˙^°$$dg19] respectively. The weighted mean center location over all energies and all years is [218$$_˙^°$$dg33 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg68, 40$$_˙^°$$dg38 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg88] and its radius is 74$$_˙^°$$dg81 ± 0$$_˙^°$$dg65. As viewed by IBEX at 1 au, we find that (1) the ribbon is stable over time, with distinct centers at each energy; (2) ribbon centers exhibit small temporal variations, likely caused by the solar wind (SW) speed and density variations; and (3) ribbon location in the sky appears to be driven by (i) the inherent alignment of the ribbon centers along the plane connecting the presumed B LISM and the heliospheric upwind direction, and (ii) the variable SW structure along the heliographic meridian, further emphasizing that the ribbon source is outside the heliosphere.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [4];  [2];  [5];  [2]
  1. Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)
  2. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)
  5. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1597367
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-31222
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; 80NSSC17K0597; NNX17AB98G
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
ISM: atoms; ISM: kinematics and dynamics; ISM: magnetic fields; ISM: structure; solar wind; Sun: heliosphere

Citation Formats

Dayeh, Maher A., Zirnstein, E., Desai, M. I., Funsten, Herbert O. III, Fuselier, S. A., Heerikhuisen, J., McComas, David J., Schwadron, N. A., and Szalay, J. R. Variability in the Position of the IBEX Ribbon over Nine Years: More Observational Evidence for a Secondary ENA Source. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab21c1.
Dayeh, Maher A., Zirnstein, E., Desai, M. I., Funsten, Herbert O. III, Fuselier, S. A., Heerikhuisen, J., McComas, David J., Schwadron, N. A., & Szalay, J. R. Variability in the Position of the IBEX Ribbon over Nine Years: More Observational Evidence for a Secondary ENA Source. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab21c1.
Dayeh, Maher A., Zirnstein, E., Desai, M. I., Funsten, Herbert O. III, Fuselier, S. A., Heerikhuisen, J., McComas, David J., Schwadron, N. A., and Szalay, J. R. Tue . "Variability in the Position of the IBEX Ribbon over Nine Years: More Observational Evidence for a Secondary ENA Source". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab21c1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1597367.
@article{osti_1597367,
title = {Variability in the Position of the IBEX Ribbon over Nine Years: More Observational Evidence for a Secondary ENA Source},
author = {Dayeh, Maher A. and Zirnstein, E. and Desai, M. I. and Funsten, Herbert O. III and Fuselier, S. A. and Heerikhuisen, J. and McComas, David J. and Schwadron, N. A. and Szalay, J. R.},
abstractNote = {The ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom flux, discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in 2009, has redefined our understanding of the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM). Yet, its origin continues to be a topic of scientific debate. The ribbon is circular and traces the region where the putative LISM magnetic field (BLISM) is perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. Using nine years of IBEX-Hi observations, we investigate the ribbon circularity and location as functions of time and energy. We provide updated locations of the ribbon center at five energy passbands (centered at 0.7, 1.1, 1.7, 2.7, and 4.3 keV) in ecliptic coordinates [longitude, latitude]: [217$_˙^°$dg41 ± 0$_˙^°$dg95, 44$_˙^°$dg36 ± 0$_˙^°$dg93], [219$_˙^°$dg72 ± 0$_˙^°$dg95, 41$_˙^°$dg50 ± 0$_˙^°$dg87], [220$_˙^°$dg51 ± 1$_˙^°$dg19, 39$_˙^°$dg96 ± 1$_˙^°$dg00], [218$_˙^°$dg08 ± 1$_˙^°$dg66, 38$_˙^°$dg44 ± 1$_˙^°$dg24], and [214$_˙^°$dg68 ± 1$_˙^°$dg48, 34$_˙^°$dg13 ± 1$_˙^°$dg19] respectively. The weighted mean center location over all energies and all years is [218$_˙^°$dg33 ± 0$_˙^°$dg68, 40$_˙^°$dg38 ± 0$_˙^°$dg88] and its radius is 74$_˙^°$dg81 ± 0$_˙^°$dg65. As viewed by IBEX at 1 au, we find that (1) the ribbon is stable over time, with distinct centers at each energy; (2) ribbon centers exhibit small temporal variations, likely caused by the solar wind (SW) speed and density variations; and (3) ribbon location in the sky appears to be driven by (i) the inherent alignment of the ribbon centers along the plane connecting the presumed BLISM and the heliospheric upwind direction, and (ii) the variable SW structure along the heliographic meridian, further emphasizing that the ribbon source is outside the heliosphere.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab21c1},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Heliosphere Responds to a Large Solar Wind Intensification: Decisive Observations from IBEX
journal, March 2018

  • McComas, D. J.; Dayeh, M. A.; Funsten, H. O.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 856, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aab611

Heliolatitude and Time Variations of Solar Wind Structure from in situ Measurements and Interplanetary Scintillation Observations
journal, May 2012


Implications of solar wind suprathermal tails for IBEX ENA images of the heliosheath: KAPPA DISTRIBUTIONS AND IBEX ENA FLUX MAPS
journal, June 2008

  • Prested, C.; Schwadron, N.; Passuite, J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 113, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012758

ERRATUM: “PICK-UP IONS IN THE OUTER HELIOSHEATH: A POSSIBLE MECHANISM FOR THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON” (2010, ApJ, 708, L126)
journal, February 2010


The Effect of new Interstellar Medium Parameters on the Heliosphere and Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Interstellar Boundary
journal, March 2014


Energetic neutral atom imaging of the heliospheric boundary region
journal, August 2001

  • Gruntman, Mike; Roelof, Edmond C.; Mitchell, Donald G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000328

THE HELIOTAIL REVEALED BY THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER
journal, June 2013


ANALYTIC MODEL OF THE IBEX RIBBON WITH NEUTRAL SOLAR WIND BASED ION PICKUP BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE
journal, March 2013


Imprint of the Sun’s Evolving Polar Winds on IBEX Energetic Neutral Atom All-sky Observations of the Heliosphere
journal, August 2017

  • Zirnstein, E. J.; Dayeh, M. A.; McComas, D. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 846, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa850b

VARIATIONS IN THE HELIOSPHERIC POLAR ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX OBSERVED BY THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER
journal, February 2012


Time Dependence of the IBEX Ribbon and the Globally Distributed Energetic Neutral Atom Flux Using the First 9 Years of Observations
journal, October 2018

  • Schwadron, N. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 239, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aae48e

THE INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL He HAZE IN THE HELIOSPHERE: WHAT CAN WE LEARN?
journal, October 2015

  • Sokół, J. M.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 220, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/220/2/29

SYMMETRY OF THE IBEX RIBBON OF ENHANCED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM (ENA) FLUX
journal, January 2015


WARMER LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: A POSSIBLE RESOLUTION OF THE ULYSSES - IBEX ENIGMA
journal, February 2015


The Interstellar Magnetic Field Close to the sun. ii.
journal, November 2012


SPATIAL RETENTION OF IONS PRODUCING THE IBEX RIBBON
journal, January 2013


Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP): A New NASA Mission
journal, October 2018


THE ENERGY-DEPENDENT POSITION OF THE IBEX RIBBON DUE TO THE SOLAR WIND STRUCTURE
journal, August 2016

  • Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 827, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/827/1/71

The Effects of a κ‐Distribution in the Heliosheath on the Global Heliosphere and ENA Flux at 1 AU
journal, July 2008

  • Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Florinski, V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 682, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/588248

Width and Variation of the ENA Flux Ribbon Observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer
journal, October 2009


SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF REGIONS AND STRUCTURES IN THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER ( IBEX ) SKY MAPS
journal, May 2011


THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF IBEX OBSERVATIONS AND OUR EVOLVING HELIOSPHERE
journal, October 2012

  • McComas, D. J.; Dayeh, M. A.; Allegrini, F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 203, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/1

Seven Years of Imaging the Global Heliosphere with IBEX
journal, April 2017

  • McComas, D. J.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Bzowski, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 229, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aa66d8

Comparison of Interstellar Boundary Explorer Observations with 3D Global Heliospheric Models
journal, October 2009


INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER MEASUREMENTS AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE VICINITY OF THE HELIOPAUSE
journal, November 2011

  • Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Zank, Gary P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 742, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/742/2/104

Effects of solar wind speed on the secondary energetic neutral source of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer ribbon
journal, January 2016


SIMULATIONS OF A DYNAMIC SOLAR CYCLE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON AND GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX
journal, April 2015

  • Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 804, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/5

Structures and Spectral Variations of the Outer Heliosphere in IBEX Energetic Neutral Atom Maps
journal, October 2009


CIRCULARITY OF THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON OF ENHANCED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM (ENA) FLUX
journal, September 2013


IBEX's Enigmatic Ribbon in the sky and its many possible sources: THE IBEX RIBBON AND ITS SOURCES
journal, February 2014

  • McComas, D. J.; Lewis, W. S.; Schwadron, N. A.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 52, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013RG000438

IBEX—Interstellar Boundary Explorer
journal, April 2009


Global Observations of the Interstellar Interaction from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)
journal, October 2009


Simulation of the Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Increase in 2014 and Its Effect on Energetic Neutral Atom Fluxes from the Heliosphere
journal, May 2018

  • Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 859, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac016

The IBEX Ribbon and the Thickness of the Inner Heliosheath
journal, July 2018


LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON
journal, February 2016


A NEW MODEL FOR THE HELIOSPHERE’S “ IBEX RIBBON”
journal, October 2015