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Title: Comparing Ocean Surface Boundary Vertical Mixing Schemes Including Langmuir Turbulence

Abstract

Six recent Langmuir turbulence parameterization schemes and five traditional schemes are implemented in a common single-column modeling framework and consistently compared. These schemes are tested in scenarios versus matched large eddy simulations, across the globe with realistic forcing (JRA55-do,WAVEWATCH-III simulated waves) and initial conditions (Argo), and under realistic conditions as observed at ocean moorings. Traditional non-Langmuir schemes systematically underpredict large eddy simulation vertical mixing under weak convective forcing, while Langmuir schemes vary in accuracy. Under global, realistic forcing Langmuir schemes produce 6% (–1% to 14% for 90% confidence) or 5.2 m (–0.2 m to 17.4 m for 90% confidence) deeper monthly mean mixed layer depths than their non-Langmuir counterparts, with the greatest differences in extratropical regions, especially the Southern Ocean in austral summer. Discrepancies among Langmuir schemes are large (15% in mixed layer depth standard deviation over the mean): largest under wave-driven turbulence with stabilizing buoyancy forcing, next largest under strongly wave-driven conditions with weak buoyancy forcing, and agreeing during strong convective forcing. Non-Langmuir schemes disagree with each other to a lesser extent, with a similar ordering. Langmuir discrepancies obscure a cross-scheme estimate of the Langmuir effect magnitude under realistic forcing, highlighting limited understanding and numerical deficiencies. Maps of themore » regions and seasons where the greatest discrepancies occur are provided to guide further studies and observations.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [6]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [6]; ORCiD logo [13];  [11]; ORCiD logo [9]
  1. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Princeton, NJ (United States). Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab.; Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  3. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)
  4. NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Princeton NJ USA; Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic SciencesPrinceton University Princeton NJ USA
  5. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  6. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  7. Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)
  8. Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States)
  9. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  10. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)
  11. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  12. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  13. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1597346
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-24938
Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; PHY-1748958; 1258907; 1350795; ONRN00014-17-1-2393; OCE-1634578; 1558459; 1756115; ONRN00014-15-1-2308; N00014-17-1-2859; ONRN00014-17-1-2963; 1852977
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; ocean surface boundary layer; parameterization; Langmuir turbulence; turbulent mixing; JRA55‐do

Citation Formats

Li, Qing, Reichl, Brandon G., Fox‐Kemper, Baylor, Adcroft, Alistair J., Belcher, Stephen E., Danabasoglu, Gokhan, Grant, Alan L. M., Griffies, Stephen M., Hallberg, Robert W., Hara, Tetsu, Harcourt, Ramsey R., Kukulka, Tobias, Large, William G., McWilliams, James C., Pearson, Brodie, Sullivan, Peter P., Van Roekel, Luke, Wang, Peng, and Zheng, Zhihua. Comparing Ocean Surface Boundary Vertical Mixing Schemes Including Langmuir Turbulence. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2019MS001810.
Li, Qing, Reichl, Brandon G., Fox‐Kemper, Baylor, Adcroft, Alistair J., Belcher, Stephen E., Danabasoglu, Gokhan, Grant, Alan L. M., Griffies, Stephen M., Hallberg, Robert W., Hara, Tetsu, Harcourt, Ramsey R., Kukulka, Tobias, Large, William G., McWilliams, James C., Pearson, Brodie, Sullivan, Peter P., Van Roekel, Luke, Wang, Peng, & Zheng, Zhihua. Comparing Ocean Surface Boundary Vertical Mixing Schemes Including Langmuir Turbulence. United States. doi:10.1029/2019MS001810.
Li, Qing, Reichl, Brandon G., Fox‐Kemper, Baylor, Adcroft, Alistair J., Belcher, Stephen E., Danabasoglu, Gokhan, Grant, Alan L. M., Griffies, Stephen M., Hallberg, Robert W., Hara, Tetsu, Harcourt, Ramsey R., Kukulka, Tobias, Large, William G., McWilliams, James C., Pearson, Brodie, Sullivan, Peter P., Van Roekel, Luke, Wang, Peng, and Zheng, Zhihua. Fri . "Comparing Ocean Surface Boundary Vertical Mixing Schemes Including Langmuir Turbulence". United States. doi:10.1029/2019MS001810. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1597346.
@article{osti_1597346,
title = {Comparing Ocean Surface Boundary Vertical Mixing Schemes Including Langmuir Turbulence},
author = {Li, Qing and Reichl, Brandon G. and Fox‐Kemper, Baylor and Adcroft, Alistair J. and Belcher, Stephen E. and Danabasoglu, Gokhan and Grant, Alan L. M. and Griffies, Stephen M. and Hallberg, Robert W. and Hara, Tetsu and Harcourt, Ramsey R. and Kukulka, Tobias and Large, William G. and McWilliams, James C. and Pearson, Brodie and Sullivan, Peter P. and Van Roekel, Luke and Wang, Peng and Zheng, Zhihua},
abstractNote = {Six recent Langmuir turbulence parameterization schemes and five traditional schemes are implemented in a common single-column modeling framework and consistently compared. These schemes are tested in scenarios versus matched large eddy simulations, across the globe with realistic forcing (JRA55-do,WAVEWATCH-III simulated waves) and initial conditions (Argo), and under realistic conditions as observed at ocean moorings. Traditional non-Langmuir schemes systematically underpredict large eddy simulation vertical mixing under weak convective forcing, while Langmuir schemes vary in accuracy. Under global, realistic forcing Langmuir schemes produce 6% (–1% to 14% for 90% confidence) or 5.2 m (–0.2 m to 17.4 m for 90% confidence) deeper monthly mean mixed layer depths than their non-Langmuir counterparts, with the greatest differences in extratropical regions, especially the Southern Ocean in austral summer. Discrepancies among Langmuir schemes are large (15% in mixed layer depth standard deviation over the mean): largest under wave-driven turbulence with stabilizing buoyancy forcing, next largest under strongly wave-driven conditions with weak buoyancy forcing, and agreeing during strong convective forcing. Non-Langmuir schemes disagree with each other to a lesser extent, with a similar ordering. Langmuir discrepancies obscure a cross-scheme estimate of the Langmuir effect magnitude under realistic forcing, highlighting limited understanding and numerical deficiencies. Maps of the regions and seasons where the greatest discrepancies occur are provided to guide further studies and observations.},
doi = {10.1029/2019MS001810},
journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
number = 11,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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  • Smyth, William D.; Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Crawford, Gregory B.
  • Ocean Dynamics, Vol. 52, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10236-002-0012-9

Refinements to a prognostic scheme of skin sea surface temperature
journal, January 2010

  • Takaya, Yuhei; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Beljaars, Anton C. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue C6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JC005985

Estimates of Kinetic Energy Dissipation under Breaking Waves
journal, May 1996


An Intercomparison of Large-Eddy Simulations of the Stable Boundary Layer
journal, February 2006

  • Beare, Robert J.; Macvean, Malcolm K.; Holtslag, Albert A. M.
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 118, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-004-2820-6

A Stokes drift approximation based on the Phillips spectrum
journal, April 2016


Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization
journal, January 1994

  • Large, W. G.; McWilliams, J. C.; Doney, S. C.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 32, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/94RG01872

Langmuir turbulence in the ocean
journal, March 1997

  • McWILLIAMS, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.; Moeng, Chin-Hoh
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 334
  • DOI: 10.1017/S0022112096004375

Comparative Analysis of Four Second-Moment Turbulence Closure Models for the Oceanic Mixed Layer
journal, August 2001


Turbulent Vertical Kinetic Energy in the Ocean Mixed Layer
journal, December 2001


Statistical models of global Langmuir mixing
journal, May 2017


Mixed and mixing layer depths simulated by an OGCM
journal, April 2008


Diurnal cycling of sea surface temperature, salinity, and current in the CESM coupled climate model: DIURNAL CYCLING
journal, May 2015

  • Large, W. G.; Caron, J. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 120, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JC010691

Wave spectral moments and Stokes drift estimation
journal, January 2011


7. Bericht über Untersuchungen zur ausgebildeten Turbulenz
journal, January 1925

  • Prandtl, L.
  • ZAMM - Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics / Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/zamm.19250050212

Langmuir–Submesoscale Interactions: Descriptive Analysis of Multiscale Frontal Spindown Simulations
journal, September 2014

  • Hamlington, Peter E.; Van Roekel, Luke P.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 44, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-13-0139.1

Oceanic wave-balanced surface fronts and filaments
journal, August 2013

  • McWilliams, James C.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 730
  • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2013.348

Vertical Mixing by Langmuir Circulations
journal, June 2000


Evaluation of boundary-layer type in a weather forecast model utilizing long-term Doppler lidar observations: Evaluation of Boundary-Layer Type Forecasts
journal, November 2014

  • Harvey, N. J.; Hogan, R. J.; Dacre, H. F.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 141, Issue 689
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2444

A Parameterization of Shear-Driven Turbulence for Ocean Climate Models
journal, May 2008

  • Jackson, L.; Hallberg, R.; Legg, S.
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 38, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JPO3779.1

Wave–current interaction in an oceanic circulation model with a vortex-force formalism: Application to the surf zone
journal, January 2010


Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs)
journal, January 2009


Effect of Planetary Rotation on Oceanic Surface Boundary Layer Turbulence
journal, September 2018

  • Liu, Jinliang; Liang, Jun-Hong; McWilliams, James C.
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 48, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0150.1

The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model
journal, January 2005


Langmuir Supercells: A Mechanism for Sediment Resuspension and Transport in Shallow Seas
journal, December 2004


Langmuir turbulence and deeply penetrating jets in an unstratified mixed layer
journal, January 2007

  • Polton, Jeff A.; Belcher, Stephen E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue C9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004205