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Title: Statistics of the charge spectrum of photo-multipliers and methods for absolute calibration

Abstract

Here, we derive the full expression for the shape of the charge spectrum that results from the illumination of a photo-multiplier tube. The derivation is for low intensity illumination with constant gain, a common condition for most nuclear and particle physics applications. Under these conditions, it is demonstrated that an analytic expression can be formulated that describes details of the spectrum including the pedestal and dark noise with excellent fidelity to allow statistical fits to data. The derivation and full formula using either Gaussian or Poisson models for gain, and its limiting forms under various simplifying assumptions are presented with strategies on their use. The analytic description can be used to formulate data acquisition strategies to perform precise absolute calibration of photo-multipliers, the digitizers, and the data acquisition system.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1597249
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1592161
Report Number(s):
BNL-213607-2020-JAAM; arXiv:1909.05373; BNL-212076-2019-FORE; FERMILAB-FN-1087-PPD
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 02; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Analysis and statistical methods; Photon detectors for UV visible and IR photons (vacuum); Photon detectors for UV visible and IR photons (vacuum) (photomultipliers HPDs others); Photon detectors for UV visible and IR photons (solid-state)

Citation Formats

Diwan, M. V. Statistics of the charge spectrum of photo-multipliers and methods for absolute calibration. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/02/P02001.
Diwan, M. V. Statistics of the charge spectrum of photo-multipliers and methods for absolute calibration. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/02/P02001.
Diwan, M. V. Tue . "Statistics of the charge spectrum of photo-multipliers and methods for absolute calibration". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/02/P02001.
@article{osti_1597249,
title = {Statistics of the charge spectrum of photo-multipliers and methods for absolute calibration},
author = {Diwan, M. V.},
abstractNote = {Here, we derive the full expression for the shape of the charge spectrum that results from the illumination of a photo-multiplier tube. The derivation is for low intensity illumination with constant gain, a common condition for most nuclear and particle physics applications. Under these conditions, it is demonstrated that an analytic expression can be formulated that describes details of the spectrum including the pedestal and dark noise with excellent fidelity to allow statistical fits to data. The derivation and full formula using either Gaussian or Poisson models for gain, and its limiting forms under various simplifying assumptions are presented with strategies on their use. The analytic description can be used to formulate data acquisition strategies to perform precise absolute calibration of photo-multipliers, the digitizers, and the data acquisition system.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/15/02/P02001},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
number = 02,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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