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Title: Evidence That the Directly Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star

Abstract

Herein we present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L' photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr –1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motionmore » to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [3];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12];  [3]; ORCiD logo [13];  [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [16] more »; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [17];  [2]; ORCiD logo [18]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [22];  [23]; ORCiD logo [24]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [8];  [22]; ORCiD logo [25]; ORCiD logo [26]; ORCiD logo [27];  [28]; ORCiD logo [29]; ORCiD logo [7];  [30]; ORCiD logo [31];  [7];  [31]; ORCiD logo [32]; ORCiD logo [30]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [33]; ORCiD logo [30]; ORCiD logo [31]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [31]; ORCiD logo [21];  [4]; ORCiD logo [30]; ORCiD logo [28]; ORCiD logo [34] « less
  1. Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA (United States). SETI Inst.; Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Montreal, QC (Canada)
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL)
  5. National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada)
  6. Aix Marseille Univ. (France). Lab. d’Astrophysique de Marseille
  7. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  8. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  9. Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA (United States). SETI Inst.; Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)
  10. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Hilo, HI (United States). Subaru Telescope
  11. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  12. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
  13. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Grenoble Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France)
  14. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  15. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  16. Merrill Science Center, Amherst, MA (United States)
  17. Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI (United States)
  18. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  19. Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  20. Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)
  21. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  22. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  23. Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA (United States). SETI Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  24. Univ. of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  25. Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA (United States). SETI Inst.
  26. Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  27. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  28. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  29. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)
  30. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  31. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  32. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  33. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  34. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
The GPIES Team
OSTI Identifier:
1597225
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-804134
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881; 1007285
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; 51378.01-A; NAS5-26555; AST-1411868; AST-141378; AST-1518332; NNX14AJ80G; NNX15AC89G; NNX15AD95G; NNX16AD44G
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 154; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881
Publisher:
IOP Publishing - AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astrometry; instrumentation: adaptive optics; planets and satellites: detection; stars: individual (HD 131399); techniques: image processing; techniques: spectroscopic

Citation Formats

Nielsen, Eric L., Rosa, Robert J. De, Rameau, Julien, Wang, Jason J., Esposito, Thomas M., Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Marois, Christian, Vigan, Arthur, Ammons, S. Mark, Artigau, Etienne, Bailey, Vanessa P., Blunt, Sarah, Bulger, Joanna, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Cotten, Tara, Doyon, René, Duchêne, Gaspard, Fabrycky, Daniel, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen J., Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hinkley, Sasha, Hung, Li-Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Jensen-Clem, Rebecca, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Macintosh, Bruce, Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Murray-Clay, Ruth A., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall, Poyneer, Lisa, Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Wiktorowicz, Sloane, and Wolff, Schuyler. Evidence That the Directly Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69.
Nielsen, Eric L., Rosa, Robert J. De, Rameau, Julien, Wang, Jason J., Esposito, Thomas M., Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Marois, Christian, Vigan, Arthur, Ammons, S. Mark, Artigau, Etienne, Bailey, Vanessa P., Blunt, Sarah, Bulger, Joanna, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Cotten, Tara, Doyon, René, Duchêne, Gaspard, Fabrycky, Daniel, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen J., Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hinkley, Sasha, Hung, Li-Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Jensen-Clem, Rebecca, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Macintosh, Bruce, Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Murray-Clay, Ruth A., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall, Poyneer, Lisa, Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Wiktorowicz, Sloane, & Wolff, Schuyler. Evidence That the Directly Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69.
Nielsen, Eric L., Rosa, Robert J. De, Rameau, Julien, Wang, Jason J., Esposito, Thomas M., Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Marois, Christian, Vigan, Arthur, Ammons, S. Mark, Artigau, Etienne, Bailey, Vanessa P., Blunt, Sarah, Bulger, Joanna, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Cotten, Tara, Doyon, René, Duchêne, Gaspard, Fabrycky, Daniel, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen J., Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hinkley, Sasha, Hung, Li-Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Jensen-Clem, Rebecca, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Macintosh, Bruce, Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Murray-Clay, Ruth A., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall, Poyneer, Lisa, Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Wiktorowicz, Sloane, and Wolff, Schuyler. Wed . "Evidence That the Directly Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1597225.
@article{osti_1597225,
title = {Evidence That the Directly Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star},
author = {Nielsen, Eric L. and Rosa, Robert J. De and Rameau, Julien and Wang, Jason J. and Esposito, Thomas M. and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Marois, Christian and Vigan, Arthur and Ammons, S. Mark and Artigau, Etienne and Bailey, Vanessa P. and Blunt, Sarah and Bulger, Joanna and Chilcote, Jeffrey and Cotten, Tara and Doyon, René and Duchêne, Gaspard and Fabrycky, Daniel and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Follette, Katherine B. and Gerard, Benjamin L. and Goodsell, Stephen J. and Graham, James R. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hinkley, Sasha and Hung, Li-Wei and Ingraham, Patrick and Jensen-Clem, Rebecca and Kalas, Paul and Konopacky, Quinn and Larkin, James E. and Macintosh, Bruce and Maire, Jérôme and Marchis, Franck and Metchev, Stanimir and Morzinski, Katie M. and Murray-Clay, Ruth A. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David and Patience, Jennifer and Perrin, Marshall and Poyneer, Lisa and Pueyo, Laurent and Rafikov, Roman R. and Rajan, Abhijith and Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. and Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste and Savransky, Dmitry and Schneider, Adam C. and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Song, Inseok and Soummer, Remi and Thomas, Sandrine and Wallace, J. Kent and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Wiktorowicz, Sloane and Wolff, Schuyler},
abstractNote = {Herein we present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L' photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr–1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (Online)},
number = 6,
volume = 154,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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Revised Filter Profiles and Zero Points for Broadband Photometry
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Astropy: A community Python package for astronomy
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Orbits for the Impatient: A Bayesian Rejection-sampling Method for Quickly Fitting the Orbits of Long-period Exoplanets
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FIRST LIGHT LBT AO IMAGES OF HR 8799 bcde AT 1.6 AND 3.3 μm: NEW DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN YOUNG PLANETS AND OLD BROWN DWARFS
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DEEP THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING OF HR 8799 bcde: NEW ATMOSPHERIC CONSTRAINTS AND LIMITS ON A FIFTH PLANET
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SPHERE IRDIS and IFS astrometric strategy and calibration
conference, August 2016

  • Maire, Anne-Lise; Langlois, Maud; Dohlen, Kjetil
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The Southern Proper Motion Program. II. A Catalog at the South Galactic Pole
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HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CALSPEC FLUX STANDARDS: SIRIUS (AND VEGA)
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DIRECT IMAGING DISCOVERY OF A “SUPER-JUPITER” AROUND THE LATE B-TYPE STAR κ And
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A Uniform Analysis of 118 Stars with High-Contrast Imaging: Long-Period Extrasolar Giant Planets are rare Around Sun-Like Stars
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Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction
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Gemini planet imager observational calibrations VIII: characterization and role of satellite spots
conference, July 2014

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The Solar Neighborhood. xxx. Fomalhaut c
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Evolutionary models for cool brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets. The case of HD 209458
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Spectrophotometric Libraries, Revised Photonic Passbands, and Zero Points for UBVRI , Hipparcos , and Tycho Photometry
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Mesa Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (Mist). i. Solar-Scaled Models
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Performance of the integral field spectrograph for the Gemini Planet Imager
conference, September 2012

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A Dynamical Mechanism for Establishing Apsidal Resonance
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The Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program. ii. Young Ultracool Field Dwarfs
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Formation, Survival, and Detectability of Planets Beyond 100 au
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Gemini Planet Imager observational calibrations I: Overview of the GPI data reduction pipeline
conference, July 2014

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Gemini planet imager observational calibrations VI: photometric and spectroscopic calibration for the integral field spectrograph
conference, July 2014

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A Unified Near‐Infrared Spectral Classification Scheme for T Dwarfs
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Photometric characterization of exoplanets using angular and spectral differential imaging: Exoplanet characterization using ADI and SDI
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Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager
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