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Title: Two Ultra-faint Milky Way Stellar Systems Discovered in Early Data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey

Abstract

We report the discovery of two ultra-faint stellar systems found in early data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE). The first system, Centaurus I (DELVE J1238-4054), is identified as a resolved overdensity of old and metal-poor stars with a heliocentric distance of $${\rm D}_{\odot} = 116.3_{-0.6}^{+0.6}$$ kpc, a half-light radius of $$r_h = 2.3_{-0.3}^{+0.4}$$ arcmin, an age of $$\tau > 12.85$$ Gyr, a metallicity of $$Z = 0.0002_{-0.0002}^{+0.0001}$$, and an absolute magnitude of $$M_V = -5.55_{-0.11}^{+0.11}$$ mag. This characterization is consistent with the population of ultra-faint satellites, and confirmation of this system would make Centaurus I one of the brightest recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Centaurus I is detected in Gaia DR2 with a clear and distinct proper motion signal, confirming that it is a real association of stars distinct from the Milky Way foreground; this is further supported by the clustering of blue horizontal branch stars near the centroid of the system. The second system, DELVE 1 (DELVE J1630-0058), is identified as a resolved overdensity of stars with a heliocentric distance of $${\rm D}_{\odot} = 19.0_{-0.6}^{+0.5} kpc$$, a half-light radius of $$r_h = 0.97_{-0.17}^{+0.24}$$ arcmin, an age of $$\tau = 12.5_{-0.7}^{+1.0}$$ Gyr, a metallicity of $$Z = 0.0005_{-0.0001}^{+0.0002}$$, and an absolute magnitude of $$M_V = -0.2_{-0.6}^{+0.8}$$ mag, consistent with the known population of faint halo star clusters. Here, given the low number of probable member stars at magnitudes accessible with Gaia DR2, a proper motion signal for DELVE 1 is only marginally detected. We compare the spatial position and proper motion of both Centaurus I and DELVE 1 with simulations of the accreted satellite population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and find that neither is likely to be associated with the LMC.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
DELVE Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1597067
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1638254
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1912.03301; FERMILAB-PUB-19-584-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; oai:inspirehep.net:1769174
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 890; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Mau, S., Cerny, W., Pace, A. B., Choi, Y., Drlica-Wagner, A., Santana-Silva, L., Riley, A. H., Erkal, D., Stringfellow, G. S., Adamów, M., Carlin, J. L., Gruendl, R. A., Hernandez-Lang, D., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Martínez-Vázquez, C. E., Morganson, E., Mutlu-Pakdil, B., Neilsen, E. H., Nidever, D. L., Olsen, K. A. G., Sand, D. J., Tollerud, E. J., Tucker, D. L., Yanny, B., Zenteno, A., Allam, S., Barkhouse, W. A., Bechtol, K., Bell, E. F., Balaji, P., Crnojević, D., Esteves, J., Ferguson, P. S., Gallart, C., Hughes, A. K., James, D. J., Jethwa, P., Johnson, L. C., Kuehn, K., Majewski, S., Mao, Y. -Y., Massana, P., McNanna, M., Monachesi, A., Nadler, E. O., Noël, N. E. D., Palmese, A., Paz-Chinchon, F., Pieres, A., Sanchez, J., Shipp, N., Simon, J. D., Soares-Santos, M., Tavangar, K., van der Marel, R. P., Vivas, A. K., Walker, A. R., and Wechsler, R. H. Two Ultra-faint Milky Way Stellar Systems Discovered in Early Data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6c67.
Mau, S., Cerny, W., Pace, A. B., Choi, Y., Drlica-Wagner, A., Santana-Silva, L., Riley, A. H., Erkal, D., Stringfellow, G. S., Adamów, M., Carlin, J. L., Gruendl, R. A., Hernandez-Lang, D., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Martínez-Vázquez, C. E., Morganson, E., Mutlu-Pakdil, B., Neilsen, E. H., Nidever, D. L., Olsen, K. A. G., Sand, D. J., Tollerud, E. J., Tucker, D. L., Yanny, B., Zenteno, A., Allam, S., Barkhouse, W. A., Bechtol, K., Bell, E. F., Balaji, P., Crnojević, D., Esteves, J., Ferguson, P. S., Gallart, C., Hughes, A. K., James, D. J., Jethwa, P., Johnson, L. C., Kuehn, K., Majewski, S., Mao, Y. -Y., Massana, P., McNanna, M., Monachesi, A., Nadler, E. O., Noël, N. E. D., Palmese, A., Paz-Chinchon, F., Pieres, A., Sanchez, J., Shipp, N., Simon, J. D., Soares-Santos, M., Tavangar, K., van der Marel, R. P., Vivas, A. K., Walker, A. R., & Wechsler, R. H. Two Ultra-faint Milky Way Stellar Systems Discovered in Early Data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab6c67
Mau, S., Cerny, W., Pace, A. B., Choi, Y., Drlica-Wagner, A., Santana-Silva, L., Riley, A. H., Erkal, D., Stringfellow, G. S., Adamów, M., Carlin, J. L., Gruendl, R. A., Hernandez-Lang, D., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Martínez-Vázquez, C. E., Morganson, E., Mutlu-Pakdil, B., Neilsen, E. H., Nidever, D. L., Olsen, K. A. G., Sand, D. J., Tollerud, E. J., Tucker, D. L., Yanny, B., Zenteno, A., Allam, S., Barkhouse, W. A., Bechtol, K., Bell, E. F., Balaji, P., Crnojević, D., Esteves, J., Ferguson, P. S., Gallart, C., Hughes, A. K., James, D. J., Jethwa, P., Johnson, L. C., Kuehn, K., Majewski, S., Mao, Y. -Y., Massana, P., McNanna, M., Monachesi, A., Nadler, E. O., Noël, N. E. D., Palmese, A., Paz-Chinchon, F., Pieres, A., Sanchez, J., Shipp, N., Simon, J. D., Soares-Santos, M., Tavangar, K., van der Marel, R. P., Vivas, A. K., Walker, A. R., and Wechsler, R. H. Thu . "Two Ultra-faint Milky Way Stellar Systems Discovered in Early Data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab6c67. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1597067.
@article{osti_1597067,
title = {Two Ultra-faint Milky Way Stellar Systems Discovered in Early Data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey},
author = {Mau, S. and Cerny, W. and Pace, A. B. and Choi, Y. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Santana-Silva, L. and Riley, A. H. and Erkal, D. and Stringfellow, G. S. and Adamów, M. and Carlin, J. L. and Gruendl, R. A. and Hernandez-Lang, D. and Kuropatkin, N. and Li, T. S. and Martínez-Vázquez, C. E. and Morganson, E. and Mutlu-Pakdil, B. and Neilsen, E. H. and Nidever, D. L. and Olsen, K. A. G. and Sand, D. J. and Tollerud, E. J. and Tucker, D. L. and Yanny, B. and Zenteno, A. and Allam, S. and Barkhouse, W. A. and Bechtol, K. and Bell, E. F. and Balaji, P. and Crnojević, D. and Esteves, J. and Ferguson, P. S. and Gallart, C. and Hughes, A. K. and James, D. J. and Jethwa, P. and Johnson, L. C. and Kuehn, K. and Majewski, S. and Mao, Y. -Y. and Massana, P. and McNanna, M. and Monachesi, A. and Nadler, E. O. and Noël, N. E. D. and Palmese, A. and Paz-Chinchon, F. and Pieres, A. and Sanchez, J. and Shipp, N. and Simon, J. D. and Soares-Santos, M. and Tavangar, K. and van der Marel, R. P. and Vivas, A. K. and Walker, A. R. and Wechsler, R. H.},
abstractNote = {We report the discovery of two ultra-faint stellar systems found in early data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE). The first system, Centaurus I (DELVE J1238-4054), is identified as a resolved overdensity of old and metal-poor stars with a heliocentric distance of ${\rm D}_{\odot} = 116.3_{-0.6}^{+0.6}$ kpc, a half-light radius of $r_h = 2.3_{-0.3}^{+0.4}$ arcmin, an age of $\tau > 12.85$ Gyr, a metallicity of $Z = 0.0002_{-0.0002}^{+0.0001}$, and an absolute magnitude of $M_V = -5.55_{-0.11}^{+0.11}$ mag. This characterization is consistent with the population of ultra-faint satellites, and confirmation of this system would make Centaurus I one of the brightest recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Centaurus I is detected in Gaia DR2 with a clear and distinct proper motion signal, confirming that it is a real association of stars distinct from the Milky Way foreground; this is further supported by the clustering of blue horizontal branch stars near the centroid of the system. The second system, DELVE 1 (DELVE J1630-0058), is identified as a resolved overdensity of stars with a heliocentric distance of ${\rm D}_{\odot} = 19.0_{-0.6}^{+0.5} kpc$, a half-light radius of $r_h = 0.97_{-0.17}^{+0.24}$ arcmin, an age of $\tau = 12.5_{-0.7}^{+1.0}$ Gyr, a metallicity of $Z = 0.0005_{-0.0001}^{+0.0002}$, and an absolute magnitude of $M_V = -0.2_{-0.6}^{+0.8}$ mag, consistent with the known population of faint halo star clusters. Here, given the low number of probable member stars at magnitudes accessible with Gaia DR2, a proper motion signal for DELVE 1 is only marginally detected. We compare the spatial position and proper motion of both Centaurus I and DELVE 1 with simulations of the accreted satellite population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and find that neither is likely to be associated with the LMC.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab6c67},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 890,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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A Hero'S Little Horse: Discovery of a Dissolving star Cluster in Pegasus
journal, January 2015


Kim 3: an Ultra-Faint star Cluster in the Constellation of Centaurus
journal, March 2016


Missing Satellites Problem: Completeness Corrections to the Number of Satellite Galaxies in the Milky Way are Consistent with Cold Dark Matter Predictions
journal, November 2018


Segue 2: the Least Massive Galaxy
journal, May 2013

  • Kirby, Evan N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Cohen, Judith G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 770, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/770/1/16

Triangulum II. Not Especially Dense After All
journal, March 2017

  • Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Simon, Joshua D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 838, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa6570

Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Dwarf Galaxies Hydra ii and Pisces ii and the Globular Cluster Laevens 1
journal, August 2015


An outer shade of Pal: Abundance analysis of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 13
journal, November 2019


The Discovery of Two Extremely Low Luminosity Milky Way Globular Clusters
journal, November 2007

  • Koposov, S.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Belokurov, V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 669, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/521422

Gaia 1 and 2. A pair of new Galactic star clusters
journal, May 2017

  • Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, V.; Torrealba, G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1182

Beasts of the Southern Wild: Discovery of nine Ultra Faint Satellites in the Vicinity of the Magellanic Clouds
journal, May 2015

  • Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, Vasily; Torrealba, Gabriel
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 805, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/130

Snake in the Clouds: a new nearby dwarf galaxy in the Magellanic bridge*
journal, July 2018

  • Koposov, Sergey E.; Walker, Matthew G.; Belokurov, Vasily
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 479, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1772

The formation and assembly history of the Milky Way revealed by its globular cluster population
journal, June 2018

  • Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Pfeffer, Joel L.; Reina-Campos, Marta
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1609

Exploding Satellites—The Tidal Debris of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Hercules
journal, January 2017

  • Küpper, Andreas H. W.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Mieske, Steffen
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 834, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/112

SAGITTARIUS II, DRACO II AND LAEVENS 3: THREE NEW MILKY WAY SATELLITES DISCOVERED IN THE PAN-STARRS 1 3 π SURVEY
journal, October 2015

  • Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Bernard, Edouard J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 813, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/813/1/44

A NEW FAINT MILKY WAY SATELLITE DISCOVERED IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3 π SURVEY
journal, March 2015

  • Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 802, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/802/2/L18

A new Distant Milky way Globular Cluster in the Pan-Starrs1 3π Survey
journal, April 2014

  • Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Sesar, Branimir
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 786, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/786/1/L3

The bifurcated age–metallicity relation of Milky Way globular clusters and its implications for the accretion history of the galaxy
journal, September 2013

  • Leaman, Ryan; VandenBerg, Don A.; Mendel, J. Trevor
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1540

The First Tidally Disrupted Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy?: A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Tucana III Stream
journal, October 2018


The Shapes of Milky way Satellites: Looking for Signatures of Tidal Stirring
journal, May 2012

  • Łokas, Ewa L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kazantzidis, Stelios
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 751, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/751/1/61

The properties of warm dark matter haloes
journal, February 2014

  • Lovell, Mark R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Eke, Vincent R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2431

The Dark Energy Survey view of the Sagittarius stream: discovery of two faint stellar system candidates
journal, February 2017

  • Luque, E.; Pieres, A.; Santiago, B.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx405

Digging deeper into the Southern skies: a compact Milky Way companion discovered in first-year Dark Energy Survey data
journal, February 2016

  • Luque, E.; Queiroz, A.; Santiago, B.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw302

Deep SOAR follow-up photometry of two Milky Way outer-halo companions discovered with Dark Energy Survey
journal, April 2018

  • Luque, E.; Santiago, B.; Pieres, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1039

How cold is dark matter? Constraints from Milky Way satellites
journal, May 2010


Comparing the properties of local globular cluster systems: implications for the formation of the Galactic halo
journal, December 2004


Evidence for an Accretion Origin for the Outer halo Globular Cluster System of m31
journal, June 2010


The acs Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. vii. Relative ages
journal, March 2009

  • Marín-Franch, Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio; Piotto, Giampaolo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 694, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/1498

Chemical Abundance Analysis of Tucana III, the Second r -process Enhanced Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy
journal, September 2019


A Comprehensive Maximum Likelihood Analysis of the Structural Properties of Faint Milky Way Satellites
journal, September 2008

  • Martin, Nicolas F.; de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Rix, Hans‐Walter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 684, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/590336

Planet–disc evolution and the formation of Kozai–Lidov planets
journal, March 2016

  • Martin, Rebecca G.; Lubow, Stephen H.; Nixon, Chris
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw605

Triangulum ii: a very Metal-Poor and Dynamically hot Stellar System
journal, February 2016

  • Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Collins, Michelle L. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 818, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/40

Hydra ii: a Faint and Compact Milky way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History
journal, April 2015

  • Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 804, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/804/1/L5

Search for RR Lyrae stars in DES ultra-faint systems: Grus I, Kim 2, Phoenix II, and Grus II
journal, September 2019

  • Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Vivas, A. K.; Gurevich, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2609

Origin of the system of globular clusters in the Milky Way
journal, September 2019


The power of teaming up HST and Gaia : the first proper motion measurement of the distant cluster NGC 2419
journal, February 2017


A Faint Halo Star Cluster Discovered in the Blanco Imaging of the Southern Sky Survey
journal, April 2019


The Observed Properties of Dwarf Galaxies in and Around the Local Group
journal, June 2012


Internal dynamics of globular clusters
journal, February 1997

  • Meylan, G.; Heggie, D. C.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, Vol. 8, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s001590050008

The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline
journal, May 2018

  • Morganson, E.; Gruendl, R. A.; Menanteau, F.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 130, Issue 989
  • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/aab4ef

The Discovery of an Ultra-Faint star Cluster in the Constellation of ursa Minor
journal, June 2012


Turning the Tides on the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: coma Berenices and ursa Major ii
journal, May 2010


Constraints on Dark Matter Microphysics from the Milky Way Satellite Population
journal, June 2019

  • Nadler, Ethan O.; Gluscevic, Vera; Boddy, Kimberly K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 878, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab1eb2

Modeling the Connection between Subhalos and Satellites in Milky Way–like Systems
journal, March 2019

  • Nadler, Ethan O.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Green, Gregory M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 873, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab040e

Modeling the Impact of Baryons on Subhalo Populations with Machine Learning
journal, June 2018

  • Nadler, Ethan O.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 859, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac266

The total satellite population of the Milky Way
journal, May 2018

  • Newton, Oliver; Cautun, Marius; Jenkins, Adrian
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 479, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1085

The Origin of the Magellanic Stream and Its Leading Arm
journal, May 2008

  • Nidever, David L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Burton, W. Butler
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 679, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/587042

The 200° long Magellanic Stream System
journal, October 2010


SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History
journal, October 2017

  • Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa8d1c

Proper Motions of Milky Way Ultra-faint Satellites with Gaia DR2 × DES DR1
journal, April 2019


Satellites of Satellites: The Case for Carina and Fornax
journal, November 2019

  • Pardy, Stephen A.; D’Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio F.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz3192

The rotationally stabilized VPOS and predicted proper motions of the Milky Way satellite galaxies
journal, September 2013

  • Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Kroupa, Pavel
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 435, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1429

The Milky Way’s disc of classical satellite galaxies in light of Gaia DR2
journal, November 2019

  • Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Kroupa, Pavel
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 491, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz3163

The VPOS: a vast polar structure of satellite galaxies, globular clusters and streams around the Milky Way: The VPOS: a vast polar structure around the MW
journal, May 2012


A timing constraint on the (total) mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud
journal, November 2015

  • Peñarrubia, Jorge; Gómez, Facundo A.; Besla, Gurtina
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 456, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slv160

The Tidal Evolution of Local Group Dwarf Spheroidals
journal, January 2008

  • Penarrubia, Jorge; Navarro, Julio F.; McConnachie, Alan W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 673, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/523686

The effect of galactic tides on the apparent mass-to-light ratios in dwarf spheroidal galaxies
journal, March 1995

  • Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 109
  • DOI: 10.1086/117342

On the Problem of Distribution in Globular Star Clusters: (Plate 8.)
journal, March 1911

  • Plummer, H. C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 71, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/71.5.460

The Astropy Project: Building an Open-science Project and Status of the v2.0 Core Package
journal, August 2018

  • Price-Whelan, A. M.; Sipőcz, B. M.; Günther, H. M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 156, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aabc4f

Stellar Substructures Around the Hercules Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy
journal, May 2015


Identifying true satellites of the Magellanic Clouds
journal, November 2016

  • Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Kallivayalil, Nitya
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2816

The star Formation History and Extended Structure of the Hercules Milky way Satellite
journal, September 2009


Antlia b: a Faint Dwarf Galaxy Member of the ngc 3109 Association
journal, October 2015


Tidal Signatures in the Faintest Milky way Satellites: the Detailed Properties of leo v, Pisces ii, and Canes Venatici ii
journal, August 2012


Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
journal, June 1998

  • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305772

Compositions of halo clusters and the formation of the galactic halo
journal, October 1978

  • Searle, L.; Zinn, R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 225
  • DOI: 10.1086/156499

Gaia Proper Motions and Orbits of the Ultra-faint Milky Way Satellites
journal, August 2018


The Faintest Dwarf Galaxies
journal, August 2019


The Faintest Dwarf Galaxies
journal, August 2019


A Complete Spectroscopic Survey of the Milky way Satellite Segue 1: the Darkest Galaxy
journal, May 2011


Nearest Neighbor: The Low-mass Milky Way Satellite Tucana III
journal, March 2017


The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)
journal, February 2006

  • Skrutskie, M. F.; Cutri, R. M.; Stiening, R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498708

Placing the Fornax and Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Globular Clusters in the Horizontal-Branch Type versus Metallicity Diagram
journal, June 1998

  • Smith, Edgar O.; Rich, R. Michael; Neill, James D.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 115, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1086/300377

Discovery of two neighbouring satellites in the Carina constellation with MagLiteS
journal, January 2018

  • Torrealba, G.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty170

The hidden giant: discovery of an enormous Galactic dwarf satellite in Gaia DR2
journal, June 2019

  • Torrealba, G.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1624

The NumPy Array: A Structure for Efficient Numerical Computation
journal, March 2011

  • van der Walt, Stéfan; Colbert, S. Chris; Varoquaux, Gaël
  • Computing in Science & Engineering, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/MCSE.2011.37

Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra ii Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy
journal, April 2016


Magellan/M2fs Spectroscopy of Tucana 2 and grus 1
journal, February 2016

  • Walker, Matthew G.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 819, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/819/1/53

Satellite Dwarf Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe: Infall Histories, Group Preprocessing, and Reionization
journal, June 2015

  • Wetzel, Andrew R.; Deason, Alis J.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 807, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/49

Be it therefore resolved: cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxies with 30 solar mass resolution
journal, October 2019

  • Wheeler, Coral; Hopkins, Philip F.; Pace, Andrew B.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 490, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2887

A New Milky Way Companion: Unusual Globular Cluster or Extreme Dwarf Satellite?
journal, June 2005

  • Willman, Beth; Blanton, Michael R.; West, Andrew A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 129, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1086/430214

A New Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy in Ursa Major
journal, May 2005

  • Willman, Beth; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Martinez-Delgado, David
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 626, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/431760

“Galaxy,” Defined
journal, August 2012


Local ultra faint dwarves as a product of Galactic processing during a Magellanic group infall
journal, August 2015

  • Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 453, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1828

A Curious Milky Way Satellite in Ursa Major
journal, September 2006

  • Zucker, D. B.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 650, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/508628

A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici
journal, May 2006

  • Zucker, D. B.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 643, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/505216