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Title: In-Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction During a Linear Deposition of 308 Stainless Steel via Wire Arc Additive Manufacture

Abstract

Adoption of metal additive manufacturing (AM) components in property-critical applications requires predictable performance of fabricated metal AM parts. In-situ diagnostics coupled with material models provide a pathway for qualification of AM whereby a prime objective is to capture data that inform or validate models or theory. Part of this is to understand the solidification and cooling of the material through diagnostics in order to ensure the part is being built correctly and that microstructures and properties are predictable. We have utilized high-energy X-ray diffraction to provide a unique probe for bulk material characterization in-situ during additive manufacture. The current work is focused on presenting the opportunities and potential pitfalls associated with extracting microstructural information from diffraction data that is necessarily limited due to the dynamic nature of the process. We present diffraction measurements and Rietveld refinement of stainless steel wire-arc line depositions using 71 keV X-rays, providing information on temperature, phase evolution, and residual stress during the deposition of a single-layer of 308L stainless filler wire on a 304L stainless steel substrate. Finally, in addition to observing both the liquid/solid and solid-state phase transformations, this methodology can be used to map the extent of the melt pool, identify thermal gradients,more » and measure residual stresses in materials during deposition.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [4]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  4. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1596970
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1073-5623
Publisher:
ASM International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Brown, D. W., Losko, A., Carpenter, J. S., Clausen, B., Cooley, J. C., Livescu, V., Kenesei, P., Park, J. -S., Stockman, T. J., and Strantza, M. In-Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction During a Linear Deposition of 308 Stainless Steel via Wire Arc Additive Manufacture. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1007/s11661-019-05605-2.
Brown, D. W., Losko, A., Carpenter, J. S., Clausen, B., Cooley, J. C., Livescu, V., Kenesei, P., Park, J. -S., Stockman, T. J., & Strantza, M. In-Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction During a Linear Deposition of 308 Stainless Steel via Wire Arc Additive Manufacture. United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-019-05605-2.
Brown, D. W., Losko, A., Carpenter, J. S., Clausen, B., Cooley, J. C., Livescu, V., Kenesei, P., Park, J. -S., Stockman, T. J., and Strantza, M. Mon . "In-Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction During a Linear Deposition of 308 Stainless Steel via Wire Arc Additive Manufacture". United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-019-05605-2.
@article{osti_1596970,
title = {In-Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction During a Linear Deposition of 308 Stainless Steel via Wire Arc Additive Manufacture},
author = {Brown, D. W. and Losko, A. and Carpenter, J. S. and Clausen, B. and Cooley, J. C. and Livescu, V. and Kenesei, P. and Park, J. -S. and Stockman, T. J. and Strantza, M.},
abstractNote = {Adoption of metal additive manufacturing (AM) components in property-critical applications requires predictable performance of fabricated metal AM parts. In-situ diagnostics coupled with material models provide a pathway for qualification of AM whereby a prime objective is to capture data that inform or validate models or theory. Part of this is to understand the solidification and cooling of the material through diagnostics in order to ensure the part is being built correctly and that microstructures and properties are predictable. We have utilized high-energy X-ray diffraction to provide a unique probe for bulk material characterization in-situ during additive manufacture. The current work is focused on presenting the opportunities and potential pitfalls associated with extracting microstructural information from diffraction data that is necessarily limited due to the dynamic nature of the process. We present diffraction measurements and Rietveld refinement of stainless steel wire-arc line depositions using 71 keV X-rays, providing information on temperature, phase evolution, and residual stress during the deposition of a single-layer of 308L stainless filler wire on a 304L stainless steel substrate. Finally, in addition to observing both the liquid/solid and solid-state phase transformations, this methodology can be used to map the extent of the melt pool, identify thermal gradients, and measure residual stresses in materials during deposition.},
doi = {10.1007/s11661-019-05605-2},
journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science},
number = 3,
volume = 51,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

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